Decades of research have produced convincing evidence of a strong relationship between having a job and enjoying good health. But does employment cause health outcomes or does health cause employment outcomes? If employment can cause health outcomes, does working make health better or worse?
We distilled the findings from a voluminous literature to draw what conclusions we could from research about the causal relationship between employment and health. That is, we were interested in research evidence that could demonstrate whether a change in employment is responsible for a change in health or vice versa. We also examined the causal relationship between work environment and health, because the relationship between employment and health may depend on the nature and quality of a job, as well. (Edited author introduction)