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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Latimer, Melissa; Plein, Christopher
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    This study compares administrative and caseworker perspectives on service delivery processes in rural areas in an Appalachian state with high levels of poverty and unemployment and limited economic resources for investment and development. The focus of this study is on the implementation of West Virginia Works, West Virginia’s public assistance program that was adopted in response to new federal welfare law enacted in 1996. The data source used in this research comes from focus groups with approximately 80 caseworkers and 5 West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources administrators with key knowledge of welfare reform in West Virginia. Implications for service delivery and public policy are discussed. (author abstract)

    This study compares administrative and caseworker perspectives on service delivery processes in rural areas in an Appalachian state with high levels of poverty and unemployment and limited economic resources for investment and development. The focus of this study is on the implementation of West Virginia Works, West Virginia’s public assistance program that was adopted in response to new federal welfare law enacted in 1996. The data source used in this research comes from focus groups with approximately 80 caseworkers and 5 West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources administrators with key knowledge of welfare reform in West Virginia. Implications for service delivery and public policy are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Short, Vanessa L.; Oza-Frank, Reena; Conrey, Elizabeth J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    To compare preconception health indicators (PCHIs) among non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years residing in Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties in 13 U.S. states. Data from the 1997–2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate the prevalence of PCHIs among women in states with ≥1 Appalachian county. Counties were classified as Appalachian (n = 36,496 women) or non-Appalachian (n = 88,312 women) and Appalachian counties were categorized according to economic status. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined differences in PCHIs among women by (1) Appalachian residence, and (2) economic classification. Appalachian women were younger, lower income, and more often white and married compared to women in non-Appalachia. Appalachian women had significantly higher odds of reporting <high school education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.29), fair/poor health (AOR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06–1.22), no health insurance (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19), no annual checkup (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.04–1.20), no recent Pap...

    To compare preconception health indicators (PCHIs) among non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years residing in Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties in 13 U.S. states. Data from the 1997–2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate the prevalence of PCHIs among women in states with ≥1 Appalachian county. Counties were classified as Appalachian (n = 36,496 women) or non-Appalachian (n = 88,312 women) and Appalachian counties were categorized according to economic status. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined differences in PCHIs among women by (1) Appalachian residence, and (2) economic classification. Appalachian women were younger, lower income, and more often white and married compared to women in non-Appalachia. Appalachian women had significantly higher odds of reporting <high school education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.29), fair/poor health (AOR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06–1.22), no health insurance (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19), no annual checkup (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.04–1.20), no recent Pap test (AOR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.08–1.33), smoking (AOR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.03–1.14), <5 daily fruits/vegetables (AOR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.02–1.21), and overweight/obesity (AOR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01–1.09). Appalachian women in counties with weaker economies had significantly higher odds of reporting less education, no health insurance, <5 daily fruits/vegetables, overweight/obesity, and poor mental health compared to Appalachian women in counties with the strongest economies. For many PCHIs, Appalachian women did not fare as well as non-Appalachians. Interventions sensitive to Appalachian culture to improve preconception health may be warranted for this population. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Federal Reserve System; Brookings Institution
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    In 2006, the Community Affairs Offices of the Federal Reserve System partnered with the Brookings Institution to examine the issue of concentrated poverty. The resulting report, The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S., profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case studies, the report contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of poor people living in poor communities, and the policies that will be needed to bring both into the economic mainstream. (author introduction)

    In 2006, the Community Affairs Offices of the Federal Reserve System partnered with the Brookings Institution to examine the issue of concentrated poverty. The resulting report, The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S., profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case studies, the report contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of poor people living in poor communities, and the policies that will be needed to bring both into the economic mainstream. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Hartzell, Sarah L.
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2007

    Welfare recipients have always been stigmatized. The welfare reform legislation of 1996 reflects widespread attitudes and stereotypes of welfare recipients, which are translated into the structure of state welfare programs and are carried down through the administration to the welfare caseworker—the “face” of welfare for recipients. Literature on welfare stigma has focused on clients, but not their caseworkers. Using qualitative methods, this paper presents a Goffmanian analysis of the effects of welfare stigma on these caseworkers, who not only interact with clients in their jobs everyday, but who also implement a stigmatizing social program. The caseworkers in this study constructed a continuum of normalcy in reference to their clients, as they tried to manage their involvement and interaction with stigmatized persons who could easily be themselves. Their attempts to manage welfare stigma influence their interactions with clients and consequentially, the outcomes of welfare programs themselves. (author abstract)

    Welfare recipients have always been stigmatized. The welfare reform legislation of 1996 reflects widespread attitudes and stereotypes of welfare recipients, which are translated into the structure of state welfare programs and are carried down through the administration to the welfare caseworker—the “face” of welfare for recipients. Literature on welfare stigma has focused on clients, but not their caseworkers. Using qualitative methods, this paper presents a Goffmanian analysis of the effects of welfare stigma on these caseworkers, who not only interact with clients in their jobs everyday, but who also implement a stigmatizing social program. The caseworkers in this study constructed a continuum of normalcy in reference to their clients, as they tried to manage their involvement and interaction with stigmatized persons who could easily be themselves. Their attempts to manage welfare stigma influence their interactions with clients and consequentially, the outcomes of welfare programs themselves. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fraker, Thomas M.; Levy, Dan M.; Perez-Johnson, Irma; Hershey, Alan M.; Nightingale, Demetra S.; Olsen, Robert B.; Stapulonis, Rita A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    This final report presents descriptive findings from Mathematica's study of enrollees during the two years after they entered a welfare-to-work program. Most were TANF recipients with significant barriers to employment; although most were employed at some time during the study, many faced employment problems at the end of that period, and the jobs they held often left them in poverty. Whether a more comprehensive approach would produce better results is unclear, but the report presents design and implementation factors for programs to consider. (Author abstract)

    This final report presents descriptive findings from Mathematica's study of enrollees during the two years after they entered a welfare-to-work program. Most were TANF recipients with significant barriers to employment; although most were employed at some time during the study, many faced employment problems at the end of that period, and the jobs they held often left them in poverty. Whether a more comprehensive approach would produce better results is unclear, but the report presents design and implementation factors for programs to consider. (Author abstract)

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