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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Rothwell, David W. ; Ottusch, Timothy ; Finders, Jennifer K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Children who grow up in income poverty experience increased risks for lifelong hardship. These hardships include low birth weight, increased infant mortality, emotional and behavioral problems, delayed cognitive development, lower academic achievement, and high school dropout, to name a few. The effects of income poverty are intergenerational, such that children in poverty are substantially more likely to be poor as adults. A recent review summarizing the past 50 years of research on this subject, highlights toxic stress and compromised immunity as the most conclusive mechanisms by which low income shapes later outcomes. The consequences of income poverty justify why more research is needed on the nature and extent of childhood poverty and interventions to reduce it. Within the existing literature, the vast majority of child poverty research uses household income as the sole indicator of well-being. Yet, families rely on a range of economic resources beyond income to meet basic needs and support children's development. Reeves and colleagues have recognized that poverty and...

    Children who grow up in income poverty experience increased risks for lifelong hardship. These hardships include low birth weight, increased infant mortality, emotional and behavioral problems, delayed cognitive development, lower academic achievement, and high school dropout, to name a few. The effects of income poverty are intergenerational, such that children in poverty are substantially more likely to be poor as adults. A recent review summarizing the past 50 years of research on this subject, highlights toxic stress and compromised immunity as the most conclusive mechanisms by which low income shapes later outcomes. The consequences of income poverty justify why more research is needed on the nature and extent of childhood poverty and interventions to reduce it. Within the existing literature, the vast majority of child poverty research uses household income as the sole indicator of well-being. Yet, families rely on a range of economic resources beyond income to meet basic needs and support children's development. Reeves and colleagues have recognized that poverty and disadvantage are complex and should be measured with multiple dimensions. Specifically, assets—financial and non-financial—shape family functioning and children's development in ways that are unique and independent from income. We begin by defining assets to include financial capital such as savings and stocks, along with non-financial assets such as real estate holdings, vehicles, etc. We then focus on financial assets as especially important to household finances because they can be easily liquidated to smooth consumption during times of economic hardship. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Leschke, Janine; Ortlieb, Renate; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin; Villa, Paola
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2019

    Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. 

    The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3½-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; http://www.style-research.eu) coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under...

    Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. 

    The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3½-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; http://www.style-research.eu) coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under 5 million euros and involving 25 research partners; an international advisory network and local advisory boards of employers, unions, and policymakers; and non-governmental organizations from more than 20 European countries, STYLE is one of the largest European Commission-funded research projects to exist on this topic. Consequently, this book will appeal to an array of audiences, including academic and policy researchers in sociology, political science, economics, management studies, and more particular labor market and social policy; policy communities; and bachelor's- and master's-level students in courses on European studies or any of the aforementioned subject areas. (Author description)

    Contents: 
     
    Introduction: Comparing youth transitions in Europe: Joblessness, insecurity, institutions, and inequality 
    Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa
     
    PART I. COMPARING PROBLEMATIC YOUTH TRANSITIONS TO WORK (pages 31-192)
     
    Where do young people work?
    Raffaele Grotti, Helen Russell, and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    How does the performance of school-to-work transition regimes vary in the European Union?
    Kari P. Hadjivassiliou, Arianna Tassinari, Werner Eichhorst, and Florian Wozny
     
    Stressed economies, distressed policies, and distraught young people: European policies and outcomes from a youth perspective 
    Mark Smith, Janine Leschke, Helen Russell, and Paola Villa
     
    Labor market flexibility and income security: Changes for European youth during the Great Recession
    Janine Leschke and Mairéad Finn
     
    Policy transfer and innovation for building resilient bridges to the youth labor market 
    Maria Petmesidou and María González Menéndez
     
    PART II. TRANSITIONS AROUND WORK AND THE FAMILY (pages 193-386)
     
    How do youth labor flows differ from those of older workers? 
    Vladislav Flek, Martin Hála, and Martina Mysíková
     
    How can young people’s employment quality be assessed dynamically?
    Gabriella Berloffa, Eleonora Matteazzi, Gabriele Mazzolini, Alina Sandor, and Paola Villa
     
    Youth transitions and job quality: How long should they wait and what difference does the family make? 
    Marianna Filandri, Tiziana Nazio, and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    The worklessness legacy: Do working mothers make a difference? 
    Gabriella Berloffa, Eleonora Matteazzi, and Paola Villa
     
    Stuck in the parental nest? The effect of the economic crisis on young Europeans’ living arrangements 
    Fernanda Mazzotta and Lavinia Parisi
     
    Income sharing and spending decisions of young people living with their parents 
    Márton Medgyesi and Ildikó Nagy
     
    PART III. TRANSITIONS ACROSS EUROPE (pages 387-500)
     
    What happens to young people who move to another country to find work? 
    Mehtap Akguc and Miroslav Beblavý
     
    Europe’s promise for jobs? Labor market integration of young European Union migrant citizens in Germany and the United Kingdom 
    Thees F. Spreckelsen, Janine Leschke, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser
     
    How do labor market intermediaries help young Eastern Europeans find work? 
    Renate Ortlieb and Silvana Weiss
     
    What are the employment prospects for young Estonian and Slovak return migrants? 
    Jaan Masso, Lucia Mýtna Kureková, Maryna Tverdostup, and Zuzana Zilincikova
     
    PART IV. CHALLENGING FUTURES FOR YOUTH (pages 501-706)
     
    Origins and future of the concept of NEETs in the European policy agenda 
    Massimiliano Mascherini
     
    Youth overeducation in Europe: Is there scope for a common policy approach? 
    Seamus McGuinness, Adele Bergin, and Adele Whelan
     
    Do scarring effects vary by ethnicity and gender? 
    Carolina V. Zuccotti and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    Do business start-ups create high-quality jobs for young people? 
    Renate Ortlieb, Maura Sheehan, and Jaan Masso
     
    Are the work values of the younger generations changing? 
    Gábor Hajdu and Endre Sik
     
    How can trade unions in Europe connect with young workers? 
    Kurt Vandaele
     
    Integrating perspectives on youth labor in transition: Economic production, social reproduction, and policy learning 
    Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa

     

  • Individual Author: Tripney, Janice; Hogrebe, Nina; Schmidt, Elena; Vigurs, Carol; Stewart, Ruth
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Objective:
    To identify, appraise, and synthesize studies of interventions to improve labor market outcomes of adults in developing countries with physical and/or sensory disabilities.

    Method:
    Systematic review methods, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, were utilized. A comprehensive search was used to identify relevant studies published between 1990 and 2013, which were graded for study quality and a narrative approach used to synthesize the research evidence.

    Results:
    Fourteen studies covering a wide range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Although individual studies reported improvements in outcomes, heterogeneity was high and studies were generally of poor methodological quality.

    Conclusions:
    There is a lack of high-quality research evidence to inform decision-making in this area. Stakeholders should be cautious when interpreting the results of the current evidence base.

    (Author abstract)

    Objective:
    To identify, appraise, and synthesize studies of interventions to improve labor market outcomes of adults in developing countries with physical and/or sensory disabilities.

    Method:
    Systematic review methods, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, were utilized. A comprehensive search was used to identify relevant studies published between 1990 and 2013, which were graded for study quality and a narrative approach used to synthesize the research evidence.

    Results:
    Fourteen studies covering a wide range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Although individual studies reported improvements in outcomes, heterogeneity was high and studies were generally of poor methodological quality.

    Conclusions:
    There is a lack of high-quality research evidence to inform decision-making in this area. Stakeholders should be cautious when interpreting the results of the current evidence base.

    (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria; Buitrago, Paola; Leroy de la Briere, Benedicte; Newhouse, David; Rubiano Matulevich, Eliana; Kinnon, Scott; Suarez-Becerra, Pablo
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This paper uses household surveys from 89 countries to look at gender differences in poverty in the developing world. In the absence of individual-level poverty data, the paper looks at what can we learn in terms of gender differences by looking at the available individual and household level information. The estimates are based on the same surveys and welfare measures as official World Bank poverty estimates. The paper focuses on the relationship between age, sex and poverty. And finds that, girls and women of reproductive age are more likely to live in poor households (below the international poverty line) than boys and men. It finds that 122 women between the ages of 25 and 34 live in poor households for every 100 men of the same age group. The analysis also examines the household profiles of the poor, seeking to go beyond headship definitions. Using a demographic household composition shows that nuclear family households of two married adults and children account for 41 percent of poor households, and are the most frequent household where poor women are found. Using an...

    This paper uses household surveys from 89 countries to look at gender differences in poverty in the developing world. In the absence of individual-level poverty data, the paper looks at what can we learn in terms of gender differences by looking at the available individual and household level information. The estimates are based on the same surveys and welfare measures as official World Bank poverty estimates. The paper focuses on the relationship between age, sex and poverty. And finds that, girls and women of reproductive age are more likely to live in poor households (below the international poverty line) than boys and men. It finds that 122 women between the ages of 25 and 34 live in poor households for every 100 men of the same age group. The analysis also examines the household profiles of the poor, seeking to go beyond headship definitions. Using a demographic household composition shows that nuclear family households of two married adults and children account for 41 percent of poor households, and are the most frequent household where poor women are found. Using an economic household composition classification, households with a male earner, children and a non-income earner spouse are the most frequent among the poor at 36 percent, and the more frequent household where poor women live. For individuals, as well as for households, the presence of children increases the household likelihood to be poor, and this has a specific impact on women, but does not fully explain the observed female poverty penalty. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Noonan, Katharine; Burns, Richeal; Violato, Mara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear.

    This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal...

    The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear.

    This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates.

    Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems.

    The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother’s psychological distress, particularly longstanding or recurrent, appears to contribute to this relationship. These findings may validate calls for psychosocial and financial supports for families affected by parental mental health issues. (Author abstract)

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