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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hicks, Andrew L. ; Handcock, Mark S. ; Sastry, Narayan ; Pebley, Anne R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Prior research has suggested that children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood have lower achievement test scores, but these studies typically have not estimated causal effects that account for neighborhood choice. Recent studies used propensity score methods to account for the endogeneity of neighborhood exposures, comparing disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged neighborhoods. We develop an alternative propensity function approach in which cumulative neighborhood effects are modeled as a continuous treatment variable. This approach offers several advantages. We use our approach to examine the cumulative effects of neighborhood disadvantage on reading and math test scores in Los Angeles. Our substantive results indicate that recency of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods may be more important than average exposure for children’s test scores. We conclude that studies of child development should consider both average cumulative neighborhood exposure and the timing of this exposure. (Author abstract)

     

    Prior research has suggested that children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood have lower achievement test scores, but these studies typically have not estimated causal effects that account for neighborhood choice. Recent studies used propensity score methods to account for the endogeneity of neighborhood exposures, comparing disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged neighborhoods. We develop an alternative propensity function approach in which cumulative neighborhood effects are modeled as a continuous treatment variable. This approach offers several advantages. We use our approach to examine the cumulative effects of neighborhood disadvantage on reading and math test scores in Los Angeles. Our substantive results indicate that recency of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods may be more important than average exposure for children’s test scores. We conclude that studies of child development should consider both average cumulative neighborhood exposure and the timing of this exposure. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Kabak, Victoria; Baird, Peter; Farrell, Mary; Sutcliffe, Sophia
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    Building on the first major effort to bring a behavioral science lens to programs serving poor families in the United States, the Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency – Next Generation project is testing interventions to increase TANF recipients’ engagement in three sites: Los Angeles County, Monroe County (NY), and Washington State. Moderated by Victoria Kabak (Administration for Children and Families), this presentation will share the diagnostic design model and introduce the interventions. (Author introduction)

    Building on the first major effort to bring a behavioral science lens to programs serving poor families in the United States, the Behavioral Interventions to Advance Self-Sufficiency – Next Generation project is testing interventions to increase TANF recipients’ engagement in three sites: Los Angeles County, Monroe County (NY), and Washington State. Moderated by Victoria Kabak (Administration for Children and Families), this presentation will share the diagnostic design model and introduce the interventions. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Woolverton, Maria; Bradley, M.C.; Gabel, George; Melz, Heidi
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    This video and its accompanying presentation slides are from the 2018 Research and Evaluation Conference on Self-Sufficiency (RECS). Too often, programs are prematurely evaluated without a planning phase to build a program’s evaluation capacity. However, there is growing consensus that prior to summative evaluation programs should undergo an intermediate step, referred to as “evaluation tollgates,” to determine whether programs are well-implemented and truly ready for rigorous evaluation. This session provided examples from two federal initiatives that used evaluation tollgates to build evidence in child welfare. Maria Woolverton (Administration for Children and Families) moderated the session. (Author introduction)

    This video and its accompanying presentation slides are from the 2018 Research and Evaluation Conference on Self-Sufficiency (RECS). Too often, programs are prematurely evaluated without a planning phase to build a program’s evaluation capacity. However, there is growing consensus that prior to summative evaluation programs should undergo an intermediate step, referred to as “evaluation tollgates,” to determine whether programs are well-implemented and truly ready for rigorous evaluation. This session provided examples from two federal initiatives that used evaluation tollgates to build evidence in child welfare. Maria Woolverton (Administration for Children and Families) moderated the session. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Nobari, Tabashir Z. ; Whaley, Shannon E. ; Blumenberg, Evelyn ; Prelip, Michael L. ; Wang, May C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Despite high rates of housing-cost burden in the United States, little is known regarding its impact on childhood obesity. In this article, we determine whether low-income 2-5-year-olds living in housing-cost burdened households are more likely to be obese and examine the potential moderators and behavioral and psychosocial mediators of this relationship. We used data from a triennial survey (2011, 2014) of a random sample of Los Angeles County participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (n = 2307). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between child's obesity status (Body Mass Index for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile) and severe housing-cost burden (finding it very difficult to pay for housing). Mother's depressive symptoms and child's diet and screen time were tested for mediation. We found that 16% of children lived in severe housing-cost burdened households. Severe housing-cost burden was associated with an increase in the odds of childhood obesity [aOR (95%CI = 1.33 (1.00, 1.78)] and household size moderated...

    Despite high rates of housing-cost burden in the United States, little is known regarding its impact on childhood obesity. In this article, we determine whether low-income 2-5-year-olds living in housing-cost burdened households are more likely to be obese and examine the potential moderators and behavioral and psychosocial mediators of this relationship. We used data from a triennial survey (2011, 2014) of a random sample of Los Angeles County participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (n = 2307). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between child's obesity status (Body Mass Index for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile) and severe housing-cost burden (finding it very difficult to pay for housing). Mother's depressive symptoms and child's diet and screen time were tested for mediation. We found that 16% of children lived in severe housing-cost burdened households. Severe housing-cost burden was associated with an increase in the odds of childhood obesity [aOR (95%CI = 1.33 (1.00, 1.78)] and household size moderated this relationship. Child's diet and screen time and mother's depressive symptoms were not mediators. Given the high and vacillating rates of early childhood obesity and the increasing burden of housing costs in low-income populations, there is an urgency to better understand the role of housing-cost burden in epidemiologic investigations of early childhood obesity. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Farrell, Mary; Smith, Jared; Reardon, Leigh; Obara, Emmi
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    This report presents findings from an intervention designed to increase the number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families recipients who “reengaged” in Los Angeles County’s welfare-to-work program.

    Two behaviorally informed notices went out to different groups of participants:

    • A notice highlighting the losses they might face by not attending the reengagement appointment; and
    • A notice highlighting the benefits they might receive by attending.

    A third control group did not receive either behaviorally informed notice.

    Participants received the notice one week before their appointment. The test found that receiving a behaviorally informed notice increased the percentage of group members who engaged in the program within 30 days of their scheduled reengagement appointment, with the increase driven by the loss notice (author abstract).

    This report presents findings from an intervention designed to increase the number of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families recipients who “reengaged” in Los Angeles County’s welfare-to-work program.

    Two behaviorally informed notices went out to different groups of participants:

    • A notice highlighting the losses they might face by not attending the reengagement appointment; and
    • A notice highlighting the benefits they might receive by attending.

    A third control group did not receive either behaviorally informed notice.

    Participants received the notice one week before their appointment. The test found that receiving a behaviorally informed notice increased the percentage of group members who engaged in the program within 30 days of their scheduled reengagement appointment, with the increase driven by the loss notice (author abstract).

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