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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Lee, Hedwig; Andrew, Megan; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Lumeng, Julie C.; Lee, Joyce M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2014

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio < 2) prior to age 2 years and a lagged, time-varying measure of poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical...

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between timing of poverty and risk of first-incidence obesity from ages 3 to 15.5 years. Methods. We used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991–2007) to study 1150 children with repeated measures of income, weight, and height from birth to 15.5 years in 10 US cities. Our dependent variable was the first incidence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). We measured poverty (income-to-needs ratio < 2) prior to age 2 years and a lagged, time-varying measure of poverty between ages 2 and 12 years. We estimated discrete-time hazard models of the relative risk of first transition to obesity. Results. Poverty prior to age 2 years was associated with risk of obesity by age 15.5 years in fully adjusted models. These associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that there are enduring associations between early life poverty and adolescent obesity. This stage in the life course may serve as a critical period for both poverty and obesity prevention.  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nguyen, Lynna
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2013

    Public transportation is a crucial part of the economic and social fabric of metropolitan areas. However, transit ridership has been decreasing over the decades, putting preference on the convenience of owning personal vehicles. It is seen that low income individuals are less likely to own a vehicle, thus becoming dependents on the public transportation system. However, there are few studies performed to analyze how effectively transit connects people and jobs within and across these metropolitan areas. And as a result, few federal and state programs related to transportation use factors like job accessibility via transit to make investment decisions. There are even fewer studies and programs relating to subsidizing vehicle ownership. Analyzing characteristics of low income individuals, understanding travel patterns, job availability, accessibility, and trip chaining are the methods used in this analysis to better understand the transportation needs of low income individuals. In addition, understanding the relationship that transit and personal vehicles play on the location of...

    Public transportation is a crucial part of the economic and social fabric of metropolitan areas. However, transit ridership has been decreasing over the decades, putting preference on the convenience of owning personal vehicles. It is seen that low income individuals are less likely to own a vehicle, thus becoming dependents on the public transportation system. However, there are few studies performed to analyze how effectively transit connects people and jobs within and across these metropolitan areas. And as a result, few federal and state programs related to transportation use factors like job accessibility via transit to make investment decisions. There are even fewer studies and programs relating to subsidizing vehicle ownership. Analyzing characteristics of low income individuals, understanding travel patterns, job availability, accessibility, and trip chaining are the methods used in this analysis to better understand the transportation needs of low income individuals. In addition, understanding the relationship that transit and personal vehicles play on the location of low income individuals and low income employment is crucial in creating and implementing programs that will improve and maintain transit and vehicle ownership options for metropolitan residents.(author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wells, Kirstin; Thill, Jean-Claude
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    Intrajurisdictional delivery of publicly provided services often results in observable service level differences that vary by spatial subunit (neighborhood). These variations are related to the sociodemographic characteristics of neighborhoods and have been hypothesized in prior literature to be the result of bias against or favoritism toward certain neighborhoods. Using path regression, this paper examines publicly provided bus service in four cities-Asheville, North Carolina; Charlotte, North Carolina; Mobile, Alabama; and Richmond, Virginia-to examine whether the socioeconomic character of a neighborhood is related to the share of municipal bus service it receives. With this analysis, we test an expanded version of Lineberry's underclass hypothesis. Specifically, do transit-dependent neighborhoods, or those with a high percentage of non-Caucasian, low-income, elderly, or student residents receive inferior bus service? Findings confirm prior research that both standard rules and bias are present in service delivery decisions. (author abstract)

    Intrajurisdictional delivery of publicly provided services often results in observable service level differences that vary by spatial subunit (neighborhood). These variations are related to the sociodemographic characteristics of neighborhoods and have been hypothesized in prior literature to be the result of bias against or favoritism toward certain neighborhoods. Using path regression, this paper examines publicly provided bus service in four cities-Asheville, North Carolina; Charlotte, North Carolina; Mobile, Alabama; and Richmond, Virginia-to examine whether the socioeconomic character of a neighborhood is related to the share of municipal bus service it receives. With this analysis, we test an expanded version of Lineberry's underclass hypothesis. Specifically, do transit-dependent neighborhoods, or those with a high percentage of non-Caucasian, low-income, elderly, or student residents receive inferior bus service? Findings confirm prior research that both standard rules and bias are present in service delivery decisions. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Short, Vanessa L.; Oza-Frank, Reena; Conrey, Elizabeth J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    To compare preconception health indicators (PCHIs) among non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years residing in Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties in 13 U.S. states. Data from the 1997–2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate the prevalence of PCHIs among women in states with ≥1 Appalachian county. Counties were classified as Appalachian (n = 36,496 women) or non-Appalachian (n = 88,312 women) and Appalachian counties were categorized according to economic status. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined differences in PCHIs among women by (1) Appalachian residence, and (2) economic classification. Appalachian women were younger, lower income, and more often white and married compared to women in non-Appalachia. Appalachian women had significantly higher odds of reporting <high school education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.29), fair/poor health (AOR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06–1.22), no health insurance (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19), no annual checkup (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.04–1.20), no recent Pap...

    To compare preconception health indicators (PCHIs) among non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years residing in Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties in 13 U.S. states. Data from the 1997–2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate the prevalence of PCHIs among women in states with ≥1 Appalachian county. Counties were classified as Appalachian (n = 36,496 women) or non-Appalachian (n = 88,312 women) and Appalachian counties were categorized according to economic status. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined differences in PCHIs among women by (1) Appalachian residence, and (2) economic classification. Appalachian women were younger, lower income, and more often white and married compared to women in non-Appalachia. Appalachian women had significantly higher odds of reporting <high school education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.29), fair/poor health (AOR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06–1.22), no health insurance (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19), no annual checkup (AOR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.04–1.20), no recent Pap test (AOR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.08–1.33), smoking (AOR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.03–1.14), <5 daily fruits/vegetables (AOR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.02–1.21), and overweight/obesity (AOR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01–1.09). Appalachian women in counties with weaker economies had significantly higher odds of reporting less education, no health insurance, <5 daily fruits/vegetables, overweight/obesity, and poor mental health compared to Appalachian women in counties with the strongest economies. For many PCHIs, Appalachian women did not fare as well as non-Appalachians. Interventions sensitive to Appalachian culture to improve preconception health may be warranted for this population. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Slack, Tim; Myers, Candice A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    This study examines the extent to which geographic variation in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation is explained by place-based factors, with special attention to the case of the three poorest regions of the United States: Central Appalachia, the Texas Borderland, and the Lower Mississippi Delta. We use descriptive statistics and regression models to assess the prevalence and correlates of county-level FSP participation circa 2005. Our findings show that the economic distress that has long characterized Appalachia, the Borderland, and the Delta clearly translates into greater reliance on the FSP relative to other areas of the country. State-level effects and local-level variations in poverty, labor market conditions, population structure, human capital, and residential context explain much of this reality. Yet, even after taking all of these factors into account, these regional geographies remain home to particularly high FSP participation. Our findings underscore the importance of considering these regions as key cases of study in the stratification of American society and...

    This study examines the extent to which geographic variation in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation is explained by place-based factors, with special attention to the case of the three poorest regions of the United States: Central Appalachia, the Texas Borderland, and the Lower Mississippi Delta. We use descriptive statistics and regression models to assess the prevalence and correlates of county-level FSP participation circa 2005. Our findings show that the economic distress that has long characterized Appalachia, the Borderland, and the Delta clearly translates into greater reliance on the FSP relative to other areas of the country. State-level effects and local-level variations in poverty, labor market conditions, population structure, human capital, and residential context explain much of this reality. Yet, even after taking all of these factors into account, these regional geographies remain home to particularly high FSP participation. Our findings underscore the importance of considering these regions as key cases of study in the stratification of American society and hold a variety of implications for public policy. (author abstract)

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