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  • Individual Author: Murphy, Lauren; Zief, Susan; Hulsey, Lara
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2018

    Introduction

    This brief summarizes key characteristics of programs funded through the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) that reported at least half of the youth they served were adjudicated youth. PREP, which aims to reduce teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and associated risk behaviors, is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding is awarded to states and territories through formula grants (State PREP), and through a competitive process to tribes and tribal entities (Tribal PREP) and to direct service providers in states and territories that did not take State PREP funding (Competitive PREP).

    Purpose

    This brief is one in a series that will inform stakeholders and the public about the PREP program.

    Key Findings and Highlights

    Seventy-two programs across 24 states and territories reported primarily serving adjudicated youth. These...

    Introduction

    This brief summarizes key characteristics of programs funded through the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) that reported at least half of the youth they served were adjudicated youth. PREP, which aims to reduce teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and associated risk behaviors, is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding is awarded to states and territories through formula grants (State PREP), and through a competitive process to tribes and tribal entities (Tribal PREP) and to direct service providers in states and territories that did not take State PREP funding (Competitive PREP).

    Purpose

    This brief is one in a series that will inform stakeholders and the public about the PREP program.

    Key Findings and Highlights

    Seventy-two programs across 24 states and territories reported primarily serving adjudicated youth. These programs served about 8,000 youth each year, largely through juvenile detention centers. Most youth in these programs reported being White or Black or African American, and most were ages 15 to 18. About three-quarters of youth reported being sexually active before entering the program. After PREP, more than one-third of the youth in these programs reported they were less likely to have sex in the next six months, and a large majority reported they were more likely to use condoms and birth control if they have sex.

    Methods

    PREP grantees submit performance measures data to ACF each year. These findings are based on performance measures data submitted by State PREP, Tribal PREP, and Competitive PREP grantees for the 2014–2015 reporting period. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Murphy, Lauren; Zief, Susan; Hulsey, Lara
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2018

    Introduction

    This brief summarizes key characteristics of programs funded through the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) that reported at least half of the youth they served were in foster care. PREP, which aims to reduce teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and associated risk behaviors, is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding is awarded to states and territories through formula grants (State PREP), and through a competitive process to tribes and tribal entities (Tribal PREP) and to direct service providers in states and territories that did not take State PREP funding (Competitive PREP).

    Purpose

    This brief is one in a series that will inform stakeholders and the public about the PREP program.

    Key Findings and Highlights

    Forty-six programs across 16 states reported primarily serving youth in foster care. These programs served about...

    Introduction

    This brief summarizes key characteristics of programs funded through the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) that reported at least half of the youth they served were in foster care. PREP, which aims to reduce teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and associated risk behaviors, is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding is awarded to states and territories through formula grants (State PREP), and through a competitive process to tribes and tribal entities (Tribal PREP) and to direct service providers in states and territories that did not take State PREP funding (Competitive PREP).

    Purpose

    This brief is one in a series that will inform stakeholders and the public about the PREP program.

    Key Findings and Highlights

    Forty-six programs across 16 states reported primarily serving youth in foster care. These programs served about 5,000 youth each year, largely through foster care settings. Most youth in these programs reported being White or Black or African American, and most were ages 15 to 18. About two-thirds of youth reported being sexually active before entering the program. After PREP, more than one-third of the youth in these programs reported they were less likely to have sex in the next six months, and a large majority reported they were more likely to use condoms and birth control if they have sex.

    Methods

    PREP grantees submit performance measures data to ACF each year. These findings are based on performance measures data submitted by State PREP, Tribal PREP, and Competitive PREP grantees for the 2014–2015 reporting period. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Liu, Yong; Croft, Janet B.; Perry, Geraldine S.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Zhao, Guixiang; Edwards, Valerie J.; Chapman, Daniel P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Purpose: Our study assesses the relationships between self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) (including sexual, physical, or verbal abuse, along with household dysfunction including parental separation or divorce, domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, or incarcerated household member) and unemployment status in five US states in 2009. Methods: We examined these relationships using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data from 17,469 respondents (aged 18–64 years) who resided in five states, completed the ACE Questionnaire, and provided socio-demographic and social support information. We also assessed the mediation of these relationships by respondents’ educational attainment, marital status, and social support. Results: About two-third of respondents reported having had at least one ACEs, while 15.1 % of men and 19.3 % of women reported having had ≥4 ACEs. Among both men and women, the unemployment rate in 2009 was significantly higher among those who reported having had any ACE...

    Purpose: Our study assesses the relationships between self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) (including sexual, physical, or verbal abuse, along with household dysfunction including parental separation or divorce, domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, or incarcerated household member) and unemployment status in five US states in 2009. Methods: We examined these relationships using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data from 17,469 respondents (aged 18–64 years) who resided in five states, completed the ACE Questionnaire, and provided socio-demographic and social support information. We also assessed the mediation of these relationships by respondents’ educational attainment, marital status, and social support. Results: About two-third of respondents reported having had at least one ACEs, while 15.1 % of men and 19.3 % of women reported having had ≥4 ACEs. Among both men and women, the unemployment rate in 2009 was significantly higher among those who reported having had any ACE than among those who reported no ACEs (p < 0.05). Educational attainment, marital status, and social support mediated the relationship between ACEs and unemployment, particularly among women. Conclusions: ACEs appear to be associated with increased risk for unemployment among men and women. Further studies may be needed to better understand how education, marital status, and social support mediate the association between multiple ACEs and unemployment. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Johnson-Staub, Christine
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    This guide aims to help states look beyond the major sources of child care and early education funding and consider alternative federal financing sources to bring comprehensive services into early childhood settings. Why? Because the sources of child care funding historically available to states have limited supply and allowable uses, and comprehensive services are critical to the success of children – especially those who are most at risk for developmental challenges and delays. The information in this guide can help states go beyond Head Start and Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) funds to build on early childhood systems and improve access to services for children. Partnerships expanding access to comprehensive services in child care and early education settings can take different forms. They can build program staff’s capacity to directly provide services to children, or they can bring other professionals (e.g. mental health consultants, nurses, etc.) and resources into early childhood settings to collaborate with child care and early education staff. In this...

    This guide aims to help states look beyond the major sources of child care and early education funding and consider alternative federal financing sources to bring comprehensive services into early childhood settings. Why? Because the sources of child care funding historically available to states have limited supply and allowable uses, and comprehensive services are critical to the success of children – especially those who are most at risk for developmental challenges and delays. The information in this guide can help states go beyond Head Start and Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) funds to build on early childhood systems and improve access to services for children. Partnerships expanding access to comprehensive services in child care and early education settings can take different forms. They can build program staff’s capacity to directly provide services to children, or they can bring other professionals (e.g. mental health consultants, nurses, etc.) and resources into early childhood settings to collaborate with child care and early education staff. In this guide, we explore partnerships using federal funding streams to provide comprehensive services to children in early childhood settings. These partnerships may be administered directly by child care and early education agencies or by partner agencies with authority over the funds.  (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: United States Government Accountability Office
    Year: 2011

    Between fiscal years 2000 and 2008, TANF child-only cases increased slightly but represented a greater share of the overall TANF caseload because cases with adults in the assistance unit experienced a significant decline. The national composition of the TANF child-only caseload has remained relatively unchanged since 2000. At the end of 2010, the majority of children receiving TANF lived with parents who were ineligible for cash assistance, and one-third lived with nonparent caregivers who were relatives or unrelated adults. However, this composition varies by state. For example, in Tennessee, almost 60 percent of the TANF child-only caseload included children living with nonparent caregivers, compared with about 30 percent in Texas.

    Most nonparent caregivers in TANF child-only cases are unmarried women who are over 50 years old, and research suggests that they often have low incomes and health problems. The children tend to be related to their caregiver, who is often a grandparent, and they remain on assistance for at least 2 years. Some of these children live with...

    Between fiscal years 2000 and 2008, TANF child-only cases increased slightly but represented a greater share of the overall TANF caseload because cases with adults in the assistance unit experienced a significant decline. The national composition of the TANF child-only caseload has remained relatively unchanged since 2000. At the end of 2010, the majority of children receiving TANF lived with parents who were ineligible for cash assistance, and one-third lived with nonparent caregivers who were relatives or unrelated adults. However, this composition varies by state. For example, in Tennessee, almost 60 percent of the TANF child-only caseload included children living with nonparent caregivers, compared with about 30 percent in Texas.

    Most nonparent caregivers in TANF child-only cases are unmarried women who are over 50 years old, and research suggests that they often have low incomes and health problems. The children tend to be related to their caregiver, who is often a grandparent, and they remain on assistance for at least 2 years. Some of these children live with nonparent caregivers as a result of parental abuse or neglect, substance abuse, incarceration, or mental illness, but these circumstances may or may not be known by the child welfare agency.

    The level of benefits and services available to children living with nonparents depends on the extent to which a child welfare agency becomes involved in the family's situation and the licensing status of the caregiver. Children in foster care with licensed foster parents are generally eligible for greater benefits and services than children in other living arrangements, who may receive TANF child-only assistance. For one child, the national average minimum monthly foster care payment is $511 while the average TANF child-only payment is $249. Most children live with relatives who do not receive foster care payments because they are not licensed foster parents or they are in informal arrangements without child welfare involvement. Other factors influencing the assistance made available to children in a relative's care include available federal funding, state budget constraints, and increased state efforts to identify relative caregivers to prevent children from being placed in the foster care system.

    Several state and local efforts are under way to coordinate TANF and child welfare services to better serve children living with relative caregivers, but information sharing is a challenge. Coordination efforts include colocating TANF and child welfare services and having staff from each agency work together to help relative caregivers access services. ACF currently provides grants to states and tribes to support collaboration between TANF and child welfare programs and plans to disseminate the findings. However, information and data sharing between the two programs does not occur consistently, which can hinder relatives' access to available benefits. For example, although HHS provides funding, guidance, and technical assistance to promote data sharing between TANF and child welfare programs, more than half of states reported obstacles to sharing data, such as privacy concerns. GAO recommends the Secretary of HHS direct ACF to provide more guidance on data sharing opportunities. HHS agreed with GAO's recommendation.

    (author abstract)

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