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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Murphy, Lauren; Zief, Susan; Hulsey, Lara
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2018

    Introduction

    This brief summarizes key characteristics of programs funded through the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) that reported at least half of the youth they served were adjudicated youth. PREP, which aims to reduce teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and associated risk behaviors, is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding is awarded to states and territories through formula grants (State PREP), and through a competitive process to tribes and tribal entities (Tribal PREP) and to direct service providers in states and territories that did not take State PREP funding (Competitive PREP).

    Purpose

    This brief is one in a series that will inform stakeholders and the public about the PREP program.

    Key Findings and Highlights

    Seventy-two programs across 24 states and territories reported primarily serving adjudicated youth. These...

    Introduction

    This brief summarizes key characteristics of programs funded through the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP) that reported at least half of the youth they served were adjudicated youth. PREP, which aims to reduce teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and associated risk behaviors, is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau within the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Funding is awarded to states and territories through formula grants (State PREP), and through a competitive process to tribes and tribal entities (Tribal PREP) and to direct service providers in states and territories that did not take State PREP funding (Competitive PREP).

    Purpose

    This brief is one in a series that will inform stakeholders and the public about the PREP program.

    Key Findings and Highlights

    Seventy-two programs across 24 states and territories reported primarily serving adjudicated youth. These programs served about 8,000 youth each year, largely through juvenile detention centers. Most youth in these programs reported being White or Black or African American, and most were ages 15 to 18. About three-quarters of youth reported being sexually active before entering the program. After PREP, more than one-third of the youth in these programs reported they were less likely to have sex in the next six months, and a large majority reported they were more likely to use condoms and birth control if they have sex.

    Methods

    PREP grantees submit performance measures data to ACF each year. These findings are based on performance measures data submitted by State PREP, Tribal PREP, and Competitive PREP grantees for the 2014–2015 reporting period. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Roman, Caterina G.; Link, Nathan W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Recently released prisoners in the United States are increasingly facing the burden of financial debt associated with correctional supervision, yet little research has pursued how-theoretically or empirically-the burden of debt might affect life after prison. To address this gap, we employ life course and strain perspectives and path analysis to examine the impact of child support debt on employment and recidivism, using longitudinal data from an evaluation of a prisoner reentry program known as the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative. Results indicate that having more debt has no effect on recidivism; however, more debt was significantly associated with a decrease in later legitimate employment. Implications for community reintegration and justice processing are discussed within the framework of past and emerging work on legal financial obligations, employment, and desistance from crime after prison. (Author abstract)

    Recently released prisoners in the United States are increasingly facing the burden of financial debt associated with correctional supervision, yet little research has pursued how-theoretically or empirically-the burden of debt might affect life after prison. To address this gap, we employ life course and strain perspectives and path analysis to examine the impact of child support debt on employment and recidivism, using longitudinal data from an evaluation of a prisoner reentry program known as the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative. Results indicate that having more debt has no effect on recidivism; however, more debt was significantly associated with a decrease in later legitimate employment. Implications for community reintegration and justice processing are discussed within the framework of past and emerging work on legal financial obligations, employment, and desistance from crime after prison. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Roman, Caterina G. ; Link, Nathan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    Former prisoners are increasingly facing the burden of financial debt associated with legal and criminal justice obligations in the U.S., yet little research has pursued how— theoretically or empirically—the burden of debt might affect key outcomes in prisoner reentry. To address the limited research, we examine the impact that having legal child support (CS) obligations has on employment and recidivism using data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI). In this report we describe the characteristics of adult male returning prisoners with child support orders and debt, and examine whether participation in SVORI was associated with greater services receipt than those in the comparison groups (for relevant services such as child-support services, employment preparation, and financial and legal assistance).

    We also examine the lagged impacts that child support obligations, legal employment and rearrest have on each other. Results from the crossed lagged panel model using GSEM in STATA indicate that while having child support debt...

    Former prisoners are increasingly facing the burden of financial debt associated with legal and criminal justice obligations in the U.S., yet little research has pursued how— theoretically or empirically—the burden of debt might affect key outcomes in prisoner reentry. To address the limited research, we examine the impact that having legal child support (CS) obligations has on employment and recidivism using data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI). In this report we describe the characteristics of adult male returning prisoners with child support orders and debt, and examine whether participation in SVORI was associated with greater services receipt than those in the comparison groups (for relevant services such as child-support services, employment preparation, and financial and legal assistance).

    We also examine the lagged impacts that child support obligations, legal employment and rearrest have on each other. Results from the crossed lagged panel model using GSEM in STATA indicate that while having child support debt does not appear to influence employment significantly, it does show a marginally significant protective effect—former prisoners who have child support obligations are less likely to be arrested after release from prison than those who do not have obligations. We discuss the findings within the framework of past and emerging theoretical work on desistance from crime. We also discuss the implications for prisoner reentry policy and practice. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lyons, Christopher J.; Pettit, Becky
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    Spending time in prison has become an increasingly common life event for low-skill minority men in the U.S. The Bureau of Justice Statistics now estimates that one in three Black men can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime. A growing body of work implicates the prison system in contemporary accounts of racial inequality across a host of social, health, economic, and political domains. However, comparatively little work has examined the impact of the massive increase in the prison system – and growing inequality in exposure to the prison system – on racial inequality over the life course. Using a unique data set drawn from state administrative records, this project examines how spending time in prison affects wage trajectories for a cohort of men over a 14-year period. Multilevel growth curve models show that black inmates earn considerably less than white inmates, even after considering human capital variables and prior work histories. Furthermore, racial divergence in wages among inmates increases following release from prison. Black felons receive fewer returns...

    Spending time in prison has become an increasingly common life event for low-skill minority men in the U.S. The Bureau of Justice Statistics now estimates that one in three Black men can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime. A growing body of work implicates the prison system in contemporary accounts of racial inequality across a host of social, health, economic, and political domains. However, comparatively little work has examined the impact of the massive increase in the prison system – and growing inequality in exposure to the prison system – on racial inequality over the life course. Using a unique data set drawn from state administrative records, this project examines how spending time in prison affects wage trajectories for a cohort of men over a 14-year period. Multilevel growth curve models show that black inmates earn considerably less than white inmates, even after considering human capital variables and prior work histories. Furthermore, racial divergence in wages among inmates increases following release from prison. Black felons receive fewer returns to previous work experience than white felons contributing to a widening of the racial wage gap. This research broadens our understanding of the sources of racial stratification over the life course and underscores the relevance of recent policy interventions in the lives of low-skilled minority men. (author abstract)

    This resource is based on a working paper that was previously published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Drake, Elizabeth K.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    A total of 424 offenders residing within the Washington State Department of Corrections who held Class I jobs while incarcerated were compared to a total of 403 offenders who were not employed during incarceration. Class I jobs are those that involve a contract between the Department of Corrections and a private sector business. The comparison group matched the test group in terms of sex, offense, age, race, and number of years incarcerated. Findings indicate that in-prison behavior was not impacted by in-prison employment; there was no significant difference in the rate of infractions received between the two groups. In terms of post-release employment, those offenders who participated in Class I industries had a higher rate of employment than the control group. However, the top three predictors of obtaining employment after release from prison were being a drug offender, being a sex offender, and having at least a high school education. Furthermore, for both the test group and the control group, younger offenders were more likely to gain employment upon release than were older...

    A total of 424 offenders residing within the Washington State Department of Corrections who held Class I jobs while incarcerated were compared to a total of 403 offenders who were not employed during incarceration. Class I jobs are those that involve a contract between the Department of Corrections and a private sector business. The comparison group matched the test group in terms of sex, offense, age, race, and number of years incarcerated. Findings indicate that in-prison behavior was not impacted by in-prison employment; there was no significant difference in the rate of infractions received between the two groups. In terms of post-release employment, those offenders who participated in Class I industries had a higher rate of employment than the control group. However, the top three predictors of obtaining employment after release from prison were being a drug offender, being a sex offender, and having at least a high school education. Furthermore, for both the test group and the control group, younger offenders were more likely to gain employment upon release than were older offenders. Class I participants earned higher wages within 1 year of release than did offenders who did not engage in Class I industries while incarcerated. Finally, the results revealed that the test group recidivated at a lower rate than the control group; 17 percent and 24 percent, respectively. Also, Class I participants who gained employment upon release had a lower recidivism rate than Class I participants who did not gain employment upon release. Overall, the study indicates that those offenders involved in Class I employment while incarcerated fared better than did their unemployed counterparts. The only category in which there was no difference between the test group and the control group was in infractions, indicating that offenders who were employed were no different from unemployed offenders in terms of in-prison behavior. Recommendations for future research includes the use of a pre-post quasi-experimental design in order to further isolate and understand the effects of in-prison employment on inmate outcomes. (author abstract)

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