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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Shattuck, Rachel M.
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop discusses the likelihood of low-income children who received federal Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) - subsidized care in early childhood - being held back in school, from kindergarten onward. Additionally, this presentation explores whether this association is particularly pronounced for low-income Black and Hispanic children relative to low-income children from other race/ethnic groups.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop discusses the likelihood of low-income children who received federal Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) - subsidized care in early childhood - being held back in school, from kindergarten onward. Additionally, this presentation explores whether this association is particularly pronounced for low-income Black and Hispanic children relative to low-income children from other race/ethnic groups.

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Nicholas; Mai, Chris; Oliff, Phil
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The successful bipartisan effort over the last two decades to reduce state income taxes on working-poor families has stalled and is in danger of reversing.  No new states exempted working-poor families of four from income taxes in 2011, and in almost all of the 15 states where such families still pay income taxes, they saw their income taxes increase.

    Taxing the incomes of working-poor families runs counter to decades of efforts by policymakers across the political spectrum to help families work their way out of poverty.  The federal government has exempted such families from the income tax since the mid-1980s, and a majority of states now do so as well.  Since 1991, the number of states with income taxes on working-poor families of four has fallen from 24 to 15, and even in most of the remaining 15 states, the income tax liabilities of these families have declined significantly since the 1990s.  Poor families paid income tax bills of several hundred dollars in 2011 in seven states.  A two-parent family of four with annual income at the poverty line (which is $23,018 for a...

    The successful bipartisan effort over the last two decades to reduce state income taxes on working-poor families has stalled and is in danger of reversing.  No new states exempted working-poor families of four from income taxes in 2011, and in almost all of the 15 states where such families still pay income taxes, they saw their income taxes increase.

    Taxing the incomes of working-poor families runs counter to decades of efforts by policymakers across the political spectrum to help families work their way out of poverty.  The federal government has exempted such families from the income tax since the mid-1980s, and a majority of states now do so as well.  Since 1991, the number of states with income taxes on working-poor families of four has fallen from 24 to 15, and even in most of the remaining 15 states, the income tax liabilities of these families have declined significantly since the 1990s.  Poor families paid income tax bills of several hundred dollars in 2011 in seven states.  A two-parent family of four with annual income at the poverty line (which is $23,018 for a family of that size) owed $548 in Alabama, $509 in Illinois, $331 in Hawaii, $274 in Oregon, and $273 in Georgia. Iowa and Montana also levied taxes of more than $200 on families with poverty-level incomes. Such amounts can make a big difference to a family struggling to escape poverty.

    Some states went further and levied income tax on working families in severe poverty.  Five states — Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Montana, and Ohio — taxed the income of two-parent families of four earning less than three-quarters of the poverty line, or $17,264.  Four states — Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, and Montana — taxed the income of one-parent families of three earning less than three-quarters of the poverty line, or $13,442.

    Another 24 states required families of four with income just above the poverty line to pay income tax in 2011.  There is strong evidence that even income modestly above the poverty line is often insufficient to meet families’ basic needs, and so there is a strong case to be made for exempting near-poor families as well. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cortes, Alvaro; Dunton, Lauren; Henry, Meghan; Rolston, Howard; Khadduri, Jill; Albanese, Tom; Dahlem, Katherine; Holt, Emily; Jennings, Ruby; Spangler, Jill; White, Matt; Wilson, Erin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    This final report presents findings from the Linking Human Services and Housing Supports to Address Family Homelessness project. Through in-depth, on-site case studies, this study observed 14 communities that coordinate federally funded housing supports and comprehensive services to more effectively serve homeless families and families at risk of becoming homeless. Seven of the models include participation from local public housing agencies (PHAs). The report includes information about the structure of the programs examined, common promising practices identified across the models, and detailed case studies of the 14 models. (Author abstract)

    This final report presents findings from the Linking Human Services and Housing Supports to Address Family Homelessness project. Through in-depth, on-site case studies, this study observed 14 communities that coordinate federally funded housing supports and comprehensive services to more effectively serve homeless families and families at risk of becoming homeless. Seven of the models include participation from local public housing agencies (PHAs). The report includes information about the structure of the programs examined, common promising practices identified across the models, and detailed case studies of the 14 models. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Allard, Scott
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    Program accessibility and stability are critical components of any effort to cultivate greater capacity among faith-based and community-based social service organizations. Working poor populations are more likely to benefit from programs if they are nearby, easily accessible, and operate with consistency. Yet, we know very little about where faith-based service organizations (FBOs) and secular nonprofits are located, or whether certain types of providers exhibit more stability than others. Drawing on unique survey data on nonprofit service providers, this paper compares the characteristics of FBOs and secular organizations in several urban and rural communities. FBOs that integrate faith into service delivery and secular nonprofit organizations are more accessible to poor populations than FBOs that do not integrate religious elements into service provision. At the same time, I find that large percentages of FBOs and secular nonprofits experience funding volatility and program instability each year. (author abstract)

    Program accessibility and stability are critical components of any effort to cultivate greater capacity among faith-based and community-based social service organizations. Working poor populations are more likely to benefit from programs if they are nearby, easily accessible, and operate with consistency. Yet, we know very little about where faith-based service organizations (FBOs) and secular nonprofits are located, or whether certain types of providers exhibit more stability than others. Drawing on unique survey data on nonprofit service providers, this paper compares the characteristics of FBOs and secular organizations in several urban and rural communities. FBOs that integrate faith into service delivery and secular nonprofit organizations are more accessible to poor populations than FBOs that do not integrate religious elements into service provision. At the same time, I find that large percentages of FBOs and secular nonprofits experience funding volatility and program instability each year. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Allard, Scott W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    Several research questions emerge as we consider the challenges of administering social service programs to poor populations. Where do our communities provide assistance to poor and near-poor households? Do gaps or mismatches in access to social services exist in our communities? How do providers finance services for low-income populations and do these revenue streams shift frequently? How often do cuts in funding lead to instabilities or inconsistencies in service delivery?

    To begin to answer these questions, this chapter examines data from the Multi-City Survey of Social Service Providers (MSSSP) and the Rural Survey of Social Service Providers (RSSSP), which I conducted with social service providers helping low-income populations in three metropolitan areas and four multi-county rural sites respectively between November 2004 and June 2006. Working from a detailed database of service providers in each site, trained interviewers conducted over 2,200 telephone interviews with program managers and executive directors. Each survey contains detailed geographically-sensitive...

    Several research questions emerge as we consider the challenges of administering social service programs to poor populations. Where do our communities provide assistance to poor and near-poor households? Do gaps or mismatches in access to social services exist in our communities? How do providers finance services for low-income populations and do these revenue streams shift frequently? How often do cuts in funding lead to instabilities or inconsistencies in service delivery?

    To begin to answer these questions, this chapter examines data from the Multi-City Survey of Social Service Providers (MSSSP) and the Rural Survey of Social Service Providers (RSSSP), which I conducted with social service providers helping low-income populations in three metropolitan areas and four multi-county rural sites respectively between November 2004 and June 2006. Working from a detailed database of service providers in each site, trained interviewers conducted over 2,200 telephone interviews with program managers and executive directors. Each survey contains detailed geographically-sensitive information on services provided, clients served, funding, and organizational characteristics from a range of governmental, nonprofit, and faith-based social service providers.  

    This chapter will proceed as follows. First, I briefly present a history of the American safety net that explains how social service programs have become central components within our local safety nets. Next, I explain how the current service-based safety net is more sensitive to the spatial location of service agencies than is typically understood.  In addition, I discuss how funding for social service programs is less counter-cyclical and more volatile than aggregate federal expenditure data would suggest. Drawing upon data from the MSSSP and RSSSP, I explore social service provision within several different rural and urban settings.  In particular, I focus upon mismatches and instabilities within the provision of social service programs. Finally, I conclude by discussing the implications of a patchworked and volatile service-based safety net for future social welfare policymaking. (author introduction)

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