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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Blumenberg, Evelyn; Pierce, Gregory
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Transportation enables low-income individuals to find and travel to employment. This article analyzes the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and employment outcomes of low-income households. We use longitudinal survey data from participants in the Welfare to Work Voucher Program, which was conducted in five US metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2005. Multinomial logistic regression shows that baseline access to automobiles has a strong positive relationship to follow-up employment but public transit access and receipt of housing assistance do not. Our findings suggest that enhancing car access will notably improve employment outcomes among very-low-income adults, but other assistance will have, at best, marginal effects. (author abstract)

    Transportation enables low-income individuals to find and travel to employment. This article analyzes the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and employment outcomes of low-income households. We use longitudinal survey data from participants in the Welfare to Work Voucher Program, which was conducted in five US metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2005. Multinomial logistic regression shows that baseline access to automobiles has a strong positive relationship to follow-up employment but public transit access and receipt of housing assistance do not. Our findings suggest that enhancing car access will notably improve employment outcomes among very-low-income adults, but other assistance will have, at best, marginal effects. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Blumenberg, Evelyn; Pierce, Gregory; Smart, Michael
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Access to automobiles may be particularly important to housing voucher recipients, who are more likely than residents of public housing to live in suburban neighborhoods where transit service is often limited. Access to high-quality public transit is more likely to benefit low-income households who live in dense central-city neighborhoods in close proximity to employment. In this analysis we draw on survey data from two housing voucher experiments—the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing and Welfare-to-Work Voucher programs—to examine the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and the employment and earnings outcomes of program participants.

    Our research underscores the importance of automobiles in achieving desirable outcomes for families who receive subsidized housing. Access to automobiles is associated with improved economic outcomes for all program participants and better facilitates job acquisition, job retention, and earnings than public transit. Our findings suggest the need to better link housing and transportation programs and to pursue a...

    Access to automobiles may be particularly important to housing voucher recipients, who are more likely than residents of public housing to live in suburban neighborhoods where transit service is often limited. Access to high-quality public transit is more likely to benefit low-income households who live in dense central-city neighborhoods in close proximity to employment. In this analysis we draw on survey data from two housing voucher experiments—the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing and Welfare-to-Work Voucher programs—to examine the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and the employment and earnings outcomes of program participants.

    Our research underscores the importance of automobiles in achieving desirable outcomes for families who receive subsidized housing. Access to automobiles is associated with improved economic outcomes for all program participants and better facilitates job acquisition, job retention, and earnings than public transit. Our findings suggest the need to better link housing and transportation programs and to pursue a set of policies that increase automobile access among all subsidized housing recipients. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gubits, Daniel; Shroder, Mark D.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    In the social experimentation literature, the treatment-control outcome difference is the “intent to treat” and the adjustment of that difference to reflect actual participation in treatment as the “treatment on treated” (TOT) effect of the intervention. Previous contributions to this literature have been silent on the sensitivity of TOT to alternative definitions of treatment.

    In this paper, we apply alternative methods of estimating treatment-on-the-treated to data from the Welfare-to-Work Housing Voucher experiment. The final report on that experiment employs an original method of calculation of TOT, and finds that early negative impacts on earnings fade out after 1.5-2 years. We test for sensitivity of these results to alternative concepts of participation: participation at time of measurement; exposure to treatment over time; definition of the intervention as housing assistance per se, rather than vouchers. We also test for sensitivity to assumptions about the effects of program exposure over time.
    We find that the published TOT results are qualitatively robust...

    In the social experimentation literature, the treatment-control outcome difference is the “intent to treat” and the adjustment of that difference to reflect actual participation in treatment as the “treatment on treated” (TOT) effect of the intervention. Previous contributions to this literature have been silent on the sensitivity of TOT to alternative definitions of treatment.

    In this paper, we apply alternative methods of estimating treatment-on-the-treated to data from the Welfare-to-Work Housing Voucher experiment. The final report on that experiment employs an original method of calculation of TOT, and finds that early negative impacts on earnings fade out after 1.5-2 years. We test for sensitivity of these results to alternative concepts of participation: participation at time of measurement; exposure to treatment over time; definition of the intervention as housing assistance per se, rather than vouchers. We also test for sensitivity to assumptions about the effects of program exposure over time.
    We find that the published TOT results are qualitatively robust to the definition of treatment. We believe this finding is likely to apply more generally in large, well-controlled experiments. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Federal Reserve System; Brookings Institution
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    In 2006, the Community Affairs Offices of the Federal Reserve System partnered with the Brookings Institution to examine the issue of concentrated poverty. The resulting report, The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S., profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case studies, the report contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of poor people living in poor communities, and the policies that will be needed to bring both into the economic mainstream. (author introduction)

    In 2006, the Community Affairs Offices of the Federal Reserve System partnered with the Brookings Institution to examine the issue of concentrated poverty. The resulting report, The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S., profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case studies, the report contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of poor people living in poor communities, and the policies that will be needed to bring both into the economic mainstream. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Wood, Michelle; Turnham, Jennifer; Mills, Gregory
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2008

    The Effects of Housing Vouchers on Welfare Families was an experimental evaluation that examined the effects of housing assistance on low-income families eligible for or receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Household-based rental vouchers were provided to participants under the Welfare to Work Voucher program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development from 2000 through 2004. Vouchers were randomly assigned to eligible program participants in six sites across the country, sample members were tracked over about five years, and the effects of vouchers on homelessness and crowding, household composition, housing mobility, neighborhood quality, employment and earnings, and other aspects of family well-being were measured. Vouchers significantly reduced homelessness, crowding, household size, and the incidence of living with relatives or friends, but had no effect on marriage or cohabitation. Vouchers increased housing mobility, while reducing the number of subsequent moves, and resulted in small improvements in neighborhood quality. (author...

    The Effects of Housing Vouchers on Welfare Families was an experimental evaluation that examined the effects of housing assistance on low-income families eligible for or receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Household-based rental vouchers were provided to participants under the Welfare to Work Voucher program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development from 2000 through 2004. Vouchers were randomly assigned to eligible program participants in six sites across the country, sample members were tracked over about five years, and the effects of vouchers on homelessness and crowding, household composition, housing mobility, neighborhood quality, employment and earnings, and other aspects of family well-being were measured. Vouchers significantly reduced homelessness, crowding, household size, and the incidence of living with relatives or friends, but had no effect on marriage or cohabitation. Vouchers increased housing mobility, while reducing the number of subsequent moves, and resulted in small improvements in neighborhood quality. (author abstract)

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