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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kia-Keating, Maryam; Nylund-Gibson, Karen ; Kia-Keating, Brett M. ; Schock, Christine ; Grimm, Ryan P.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2018

    Early poverty is associated with a cumulative load of family and community risk factors that can impact the development of self-regulatory abilities and result in socio-emotional and achievement gaps which begin early and persist across the lifespan. Ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented among children living in poverty. The longitudinal trajectories of self-regulation are important to understand in this population, in order to best inform prevention efforts. This study examines patterns of self-regulation over time among young, ethnic minority children living in low income, urban households. A stratified, random sample of 555 children, ages 2 to 4 years, (46% Black, 46% Hispanic; 47% female) were followed over three waves (including 1 and 5 year follow-ups). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors at approximately age nine were predicted by children’s early self-regulation. Latent class analyses revealed low, medium, and high levels of self-regulatory abilities at wave 1 (mean age: 2.99, SD = .81) and low and high levels, 1 year later (mean age: 4.39 (SD = .94...

    Early poverty is associated with a cumulative load of family and community risk factors that can impact the development of self-regulatory abilities and result in socio-emotional and achievement gaps which begin early and persist across the lifespan. Ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented among children living in poverty. The longitudinal trajectories of self-regulation are important to understand in this population, in order to best inform prevention efforts. This study examines patterns of self-regulation over time among young, ethnic minority children living in low income, urban households. A stratified, random sample of 555 children, ages 2 to 4 years, (46% Black, 46% Hispanic; 47% female) were followed over three waves (including 1 and 5 year follow-ups). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors at approximately age nine were predicted by children’s early self-regulation. Latent class analyses revealed low, medium, and high levels of self-regulatory abilities at wave 1 (mean age: 2.99, SD = .81) and low and high levels, 1 year later (mean age: 4.39 (SD = .94). A gender effect was found whereby girls were more likely than boys to be in the high self-regulation class relative to the low at both waves. Using Latent Transition Analysis, distal outcomes were examined approximately 5 years after the initial assessment (mean age: 8.83, SD = .93). Children who sustained a higher level of self-regulation over time had the lowest internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Transition to low self-regulation at wave 2, regardless of initial self-regulation status, was related to greater severity of internalizing symptoms. Implications for prevention and future research are discussed. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Levine Coley, Rebekah; Doyle Lynch, Alicia; Kull, Melissa
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    Poor families often confront chaos and instability in their family, home, and neighborhood contexts. For very young children, this environmental chaos interrupts critical routines and stability at a time in life when they matter dearly. Indeed, research has shown a link between chaos in a child’s early home environment and harm to physical and mental health, brain development, and other outcomes. Yet how exactly chaos affects children is still a question. Is it the timing of the disruptions—early in life rather than later, for example? Is it the intensity of the chaos? And can sensitive parenting shield children against the harms of chaotic home and neighborhood environments? The current study seeks answers to those questions. It examines the timing and intensity of household and neighborhood disorder and family instability and explores whether parents can buffer any negative effects on young children. (author introduction) 

    Poor families often confront chaos and instability in their family, home, and neighborhood contexts. For very young children, this environmental chaos interrupts critical routines and stability at a time in life when they matter dearly. Indeed, research has shown a link between chaos in a child’s early home environment and harm to physical and mental health, brain development, and other outcomes. Yet how exactly chaos affects children is still a question. Is it the timing of the disruptions—early in life rather than later, for example? Is it the intensity of the chaos? And can sensitive parenting shield children against the harms of chaotic home and neighborhood environments? The current study seeks answers to those questions. It examines the timing and intensity of household and neighborhood disorder and family instability and explores whether parents can buffer any negative effects on young children. (author introduction) 

  • Individual Author: Legerski, Elizabeth M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2012

    The number of uninsured Americans has risen substantially over the last decade. Despite the availability of Medicaid, low-income women are at particularly elevated risk of having no or inadequate health insurance. How does continuity of work, family, and welfare affect low-income women’s health insurance status? A multinomial logistic regression analysis of 1,662 low-income women from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study provides evidence of the consequences of life changes on access to health insurance from 1999–2005. The results show that compared to those with stable welfare, work, and family attachments, new full-time employment actually increases low-income women’s risk of being uninsured as does being underemployed, on welfare, or single for extended periods of time. These findings illustrate how health-care reform must adequately address the complexity of low-income women’s lives—including the ways labor market, state, and family factors interact to create barriers to health insurance—in order to improve access to care under the current U.S. health...

    The number of uninsured Americans has risen substantially over the last decade. Despite the availability of Medicaid, low-income women are at particularly elevated risk of having no or inadequate health insurance. How does continuity of work, family, and welfare affect low-income women’s health insurance status? A multinomial logistic regression analysis of 1,662 low-income women from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study provides evidence of the consequences of life changes on access to health insurance from 1999–2005. The results show that compared to those with stable welfare, work, and family attachments, new full-time employment actually increases low-income women’s risk of being uninsured as does being underemployed, on welfare, or single for extended periods of time. These findings illustrate how health-care reform must adequately address the complexity of low-income women’s lives—including the ways labor market, state, and family factors interact to create barriers to health insurance—in order to improve access to care under the current U.S. health insurance model. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children’s needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their...

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children’s needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women’s use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an ‘‘either/or’’ phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act imposed work requirements on welfare recipients. Using 1999-2001 data from Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we compared the labor market and welfare experience of women with four employment barriers: poor mental health, moderate to heavy drug and alcohol use, a child with a behavior problem, and a child under the age of 3. Women with poor mental health and drug and alcohol users were much less likely to move into work than other groups, and more likely to be sanctioned for noncompliance with welfare requirements in 2000-2001 as federal work participation requirements increased. (author abstract)

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act imposed work requirements on welfare recipients. Using 1999-2001 data from Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we compared the labor market and welfare experience of women with four employment barriers: poor mental health, moderate to heavy drug and alcohol use, a child with a behavior problem, and a child under the age of 3. Women with poor mental health and drug and alcohol users were much less likely to move into work than other groups, and more likely to be sanctioned for noncompliance with welfare requirements in 2000-2001 as federal work participation requirements increased. (author abstract)

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