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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kainz, Kirsten
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment...

    Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment studies and local partnerships to determine effective uses of Title I monies. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zogg, Cheryl K.; Scott, John W.; Metcalfe, David; Gluck, Abbe R.; Curfman, Gregory D.; Davis, Kimberly A.; Dimick, Justin B.; Haider, Adil H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Importance Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability for patients of all ages, many of whom are also among the most likely to be uninsured. Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was intended to improve access to care through improvements in insurance. However, despite nationally reported changes in the payer mix of patients, the extent of the law’s impact on insurance coverage among trauma patients is unknown, as is its success in improving trauma outcomes and promoting increased access to rehabilitation.

    Objective To use rigorous quasi-experimental regression techniques to assess the extent of changes in insurance coverage, outcomes, and discharge to rehabilitation among adult trauma patients before and after Medicaid expansion and implementation of the remainder of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Quasi-experimental, difference-in-difference analysis assessed adult trauma in patients aged 19 to 64 years in 5 Medicaid expansion (Colorado,...

    Importance Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability for patients of all ages, many of whom are also among the most likely to be uninsured. Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was intended to improve access to care through improvements in insurance. However, despite nationally reported changes in the payer mix of patients, the extent of the law’s impact on insurance coverage among trauma patients is unknown, as is its success in improving trauma outcomes and promoting increased access to rehabilitation.

    Objective To use rigorous quasi-experimental regression techniques to assess the extent of changes in insurance coverage, outcomes, and discharge to rehabilitation among adult trauma patients before and after Medicaid expansion and implementation of the remainder of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Quasi-experimental, difference-in-difference analysis assessed adult trauma in patients aged 19 to 64 years in 5 Medicaid expansion (Colorado, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, and New Mexico) and 4 nonexpansion (Florida, Nebraska, North Carolina, and Texas) states.

    Interventions/Exposure Policy implementation in January 2014.

    Main Outcomes and Measures Changes in insurance coverage, outcomes (mortality, morbidity, failure to rescue, and length of stay), and discharge to rehabilitation.

    Results A total of 283 878 patients from Medicaid expansion states and 285 851 patients from nonexpansion states were included (mean age [SD], 41.9 [14.1] years; 206 698 [36.3%] women). Adults with injuries in expansion states experienced a 13.7 percentage point increase in discharge to rehabilitation (95% CI, 7.0-7.8; baseline: 14.7%) that persisted across inpatient rehabilitation facilities (4.5 percentage points), home health agencies (2.9 percentage points), and skilled nursing facilities (1.0 percentage points). There was also a 2.6 percentage point drop in failure to rescue and a 0.84-day increase in length of stay. Rehabilitation changes were most pronounced among patients eligible for rehabilitation coverage under the 2-midnight (8.4 percentage points) and 60% (10.2 percentage points) Medicaid payment rules. Medicaid expansion increased rehabilitation access for patients with the most severe injuries and conditions requiring postdischarge care (eg, pelvic fracture). It mitigated race/ethnicity-, age-, and sex-based disparities in which patients use rehabilitation.

    Conclusions and relevance This multistate assessment demonstrated significant changes in insurance coverage and discharge to rehabilitation among adult trauma patients that were greater in Medicaid expansion than nonexpansion states. By targeting subgroups of the trauma population most likely to be uninsured, rehabilitation gains associated with Medicaid have the potential to improve survival and functional outcomes for more than 60 000 additional adult trauma patients nationally in expansion states. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Child Trends
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    After reaching 23 percent in 1993—the highest rate since 1964—child poverty (the percentage of children in families with income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level) fell to 16 percent in 2000. The rate then rose slowly through 2004, to 18 percent. Soon after, the child poverty rate began to reflect the most recent economic downturn. From 2006 to 2010, child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from 2010 to 2017, to 17 percent. A small uptick in 2014, to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting. (Author introduction)

     

    After reaching 23 percent in 1993—the highest rate since 1964—child poverty (the percentage of children in families with income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level) fell to 16 percent in 2000. The rate then rose slowly through 2004, to 18 percent. Soon after, the child poverty rate began to reflect the most recent economic downturn. From 2006 to 2010, child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from 2010 to 2017, to 17 percent. A small uptick in 2014, to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting. (Author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Reeves, Richard V.; Krause, Eleanor
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    We argue in Part 1 of this paper that maternal depression is an under-acknowledged factor in the intergenerational transmission of poverty, and lack of economic mobility. Specifically, we show that:

    I. Poverty increases the risk of maternal depression;

    II. Maternal depression can weaken attachment;

    III. Weaker attachment can impair child development;

    IV. Slower development can damage child outcomes; and

    V. Worse child outcomes can increase the risk of future poverty.

    Since our focus here is on the role of the mental health of caregivers in the very early years, we spend more time on these particular links in the chain. The other links—for instance, between child and adult outcomes—are treated only briefly, with pointers to the broader literature. In Part 2 we draw out some policy approaches to breaking the cycle at each point. This is an area where a “two-generation” approach may pay dividends. Specifically, we suggest policies to:

    I. Reduce poverty;

    II. Reduce the impact of poverty on depression among caregivers;

    III...

    We argue in Part 1 of this paper that maternal depression is an under-acknowledged factor in the intergenerational transmission of poverty, and lack of economic mobility. Specifically, we show that:

    I. Poverty increases the risk of maternal depression;

    II. Maternal depression can weaken attachment;

    III. Weaker attachment can impair child development;

    IV. Slower development can damage child outcomes; and

    V. Worse child outcomes can increase the risk of future poverty.

    Since our focus here is on the role of the mental health of caregivers in the very early years, we spend more time on these particular links in the chain. The other links—for instance, between child and adult outcomes—are treated only briefly, with pointers to the broader literature. In Part 2 we draw out some policy approaches to breaking the cycle at each point. This is an area where a “two-generation” approach may pay dividends. Specifically, we suggest policies to:

    I. Reduce poverty;

    II. Reduce the impact of poverty on depression among caregivers;

    III. Reduce the impact of caregiver depression on early child development; and

    IV. Reduce the impact of weaker early child development on later outcomes.

    (Edited author introduction)

  • Individual Author: LaBriola, Joe; Schneider, Daniel
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Because parental childcare time has an important influence on child development, class- based disparities in maternal and paternal childcare time may contribute to inequality in child outcomes. Theory suggests that class gaps in family structure and class-based assortative mating may widen class gaps in total parental childcare time, while specialization between partners may reduce these gaps. Yet, these hypotheses have not been rigorously tested. We match parental respondents within the American Time Use Survey to generate synthetic parental dyads, which we use to estimate, in turn, the contributions of family structure, assortative mating, and specialization to class gaps in total parental childcare time. We find that class gaps in family structure lead to wider income-based gaps in total parental childcare time than observed in maternal or paternal time. Additionally, assortative mating widens education- and income- based gaps in total parental childcare time. However, specialization does not offset these wider class divides. (Author abstract)

    Because parental childcare time has an important influence on child development, class- based disparities in maternal and paternal childcare time may contribute to inequality in child outcomes. Theory suggests that class gaps in family structure and class-based assortative mating may widen class gaps in total parental childcare time, while specialization between partners may reduce these gaps. Yet, these hypotheses have not been rigorously tested. We match parental respondents within the American Time Use Survey to generate synthetic parental dyads, which we use to estimate, in turn, the contributions of family structure, assortative mating, and specialization to class gaps in total parental childcare time. We find that class gaps in family structure lead to wider income-based gaps in total parental childcare time than observed in maternal or paternal time. Additionally, assortative mating widens education- and income- based gaps in total parental childcare time. However, specialization does not offset these wider class divides. (Author abstract)

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