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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Blumenberg, Evelyn; Pierce, Gregory
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Transportation enables low-income individuals to find and travel to employment. This article analyzes the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and employment outcomes of low-income households. We use longitudinal survey data from participants in the Welfare to Work Voucher Program, which was conducted in five US metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2005. Multinomial logistic regression shows that baseline access to automobiles has a strong positive relationship to follow-up employment but public transit access and receipt of housing assistance do not. Our findings suggest that enhancing car access will notably improve employment outcomes among very-low-income adults, but other assistance will have, at best, marginal effects. (author abstract)

    Transportation enables low-income individuals to find and travel to employment. This article analyzes the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and employment outcomes of low-income households. We use longitudinal survey data from participants in the Welfare to Work Voucher Program, which was conducted in five US metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2005. Multinomial logistic regression shows that baseline access to automobiles has a strong positive relationship to follow-up employment but public transit access and receipt of housing assistance do not. Our findings suggest that enhancing car access will notably improve employment outcomes among very-low-income adults, but other assistance will have, at best, marginal effects. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Blumenberg, Evelyn; Pierce, Gregory; Smart, Michael
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Access to automobiles may be particularly important to housing voucher recipients, who are more likely than residents of public housing to live in suburban neighborhoods where transit service is often limited. Access to high-quality public transit is more likely to benefit low-income households who live in dense central-city neighborhoods in close proximity to employment. In this analysis we draw on survey data from two housing voucher experiments—the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing and Welfare-to-Work Voucher programs—to examine the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and the employment and earnings outcomes of program participants.

    Our research underscores the importance of automobiles in achieving desirable outcomes for families who receive subsidized housing. Access to automobiles is associated with improved economic outcomes for all program participants and better facilitates job acquisition, job retention, and earnings than public transit. Our findings suggest the need to better link housing and transportation programs and to pursue a...

    Access to automobiles may be particularly important to housing voucher recipients, who are more likely than residents of public housing to live in suburban neighborhoods where transit service is often limited. Access to high-quality public transit is more likely to benefit low-income households who live in dense central-city neighborhoods in close proximity to employment. In this analysis we draw on survey data from two housing voucher experiments—the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing and Welfare-to-Work Voucher programs—to examine the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and the employment and earnings outcomes of program participants.

    Our research underscores the importance of automobiles in achieving desirable outcomes for families who receive subsidized housing. Access to automobiles is associated with improved economic outcomes for all program participants and better facilitates job acquisition, job retention, and earnings than public transit. Our findings suggest the need to better link housing and transportation programs and to pursue a set of policies that increase automobile access among all subsidized housing recipients. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kawabata, Mizuki
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2002

    One of the major concerns in today's urban labor market is spatial mismatch, the geographic separation between jobs and workers. Although numerous studies examine spatial mismatch, most of them focus on inner-city minorities, and the spatial mismatch problem for all autoless workers in a metropolitan area as a whole has not been well explored. Focusing on low-skilled workers and welfare recipients, this dissertation explores and quantifies the importance of job accessibility in employment outcomes for disadvantaged workers without autos in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    Metropolitan areas studied are Boston, San Francisco, and Los Angeles for low-skilled workers and Los Angeles for welfare recipients. An essential component of the analysis is the calculation of improved job-access measures that take into account supply and demand sides of the labor market and travel modes. The resulting measures indicate that, contrary to the perception of many spatial mismatch studies, central-city areas still offer more of a geographical advantage in accessing employment opportunities than...

    One of the major concerns in today's urban labor market is spatial mismatch, the geographic separation between jobs and workers. Although numerous studies examine spatial mismatch, most of them focus on inner-city minorities, and the spatial mismatch problem for all autoless workers in a metropolitan area as a whole has not been well explored. Focusing on low-skilled workers and welfare recipients, this dissertation explores and quantifies the importance of job accessibility in employment outcomes for disadvantaged workers without autos in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    Metropolitan areas studied are Boston, San Francisco, and Los Angeles for low-skilled workers and Los Angeles for welfare recipients. An essential component of the analysis is the calculation of improved job-access measures that take into account supply and demand sides of the labor market and travel modes. The resulting measures indicate that, contrary to the perception of many spatial mismatch studies, central-city areas still offer more of a geographical advantage in accessing employment opportunities than suburban areas, despite the substantial suburbanization of employment. In other words, spatial mismatch is greater in suburban areas than in central-city areas. The measures also indicate that the levels of spatially accessible job opportunities are considerably lower for transit users than for auto users. In other words, spatial mismatch is much greater for transit users than for auto users. This transit/auto disparity is much greater than the central-city/suburb disparity, suggesting that the mode of travel has greater importance in determining job accessibility than location. These findings suggest that spatial mismatch may pose a serious problem for autoless workers, particularly for those who live in suburban areas, although it may not be a problem for workers with autos.

    By incorporating the improved job-access measures into multinomial logit (MNL) models and regression models with Heckman correction, I find that improving job accessibility for transit users significantly augments the employment probability and the probability of working fulltime for low-skilled autoless workers in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Further, in all three areas the job-access effect is greater for low-skilled autoless workers than for low-skilled autoowning workers. Applying the same analytical framework for welfare recipients in Los Angeles, I find consistent results. I also find that job accessibility for transit users plays a more important role in employment outcomes in San Francisco and Los Angeles, more highly autodependent areas, than in Boston, a more compact area with relatively well-developed transit systems. The empirical findings together suggest that spatial mismatch is in fact the problem for autoless workers in suburban areas where jobs are dispersed and public transportation is poorly developed. The findings also suggest that spatial mismatch is more likely to be an employment barrier for those who live in suburban areas than for those who live in central-city areas, which contradicts the dominant view among spatial mismatch researchers.

    The empirical findings hold important policy implications. Simulations of some policy scenarios indicate that for autoless workers in highly auto-dependent areas, a housing dispersal program would actually worsen their employment prospects, although for auto-owning workers such a program could be helpful, and that transportation mobility programs that improve mobility and job accessibility for transit users would enhance the employment outcomes for autoless as well as for auto-owning workers. Thus, this dissertation's empirical analysis of the combination of spatial and transportation mismatch contributes new information for the theory and policy debate surrounding the problem of spatial mismatch. (Author abstract)

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