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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Morduch, Jonathan; Siwicki, Julie
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    We use data from the US Financial Diaries study to relate episodic poverty to intrayear income volatility and to the availability of government transfers. The US Financial Diaries data track a continuous year’s worth of month-to-month income for 235 low- and moderate-income households, each with at least one employed member, in four regions in the United States. The data provide an unusually granular view of household financial transactions, allowing the documentation of episodic poverty and the attribution of a large share of it to fluctuations in earnings within jobs. For households with annual income greater than 150 percent of the poverty line, smoothing within-job income variability reduces the incidence of episodic poverty by roughly half. We decompose how month-to-month income volatility responds to the receipt of eight types of public or private transfers. The transfers assist households mainly by raising the mean of income rather than by dampening intrayear income variability. (Author abstract)

     

    We use data from the US Financial Diaries study to relate episodic poverty to intrayear income volatility and to the availability of government transfers. The US Financial Diaries data track a continuous year’s worth of month-to-month income for 235 low- and moderate-income households, each with at least one employed member, in four regions in the United States. The data provide an unusually granular view of household financial transactions, allowing the documentation of episodic poverty and the attribution of a large share of it to fluctuations in earnings within jobs. For households with annual income greater than 150 percent of the poverty line, smoothing within-job income variability reduces the incidence of episodic poverty by roughly half. We decompose how month-to-month income volatility responds to the receipt of eight types of public or private transfers. The transfers assist households mainly by raising the mean of income rather than by dampening intrayear income variability. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Karoly, Lynn A.; Whitaker, Anamarie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Cincinnati, Ohio, is one of a growing number of U.S. cities seeking to expand access to and raise the quality of preschool programs, especially for the city's most vulnerable children. To inform stakeholders regarding potential investments designed to expand preschool access and quality, this report compiles the most-reliable research evidence concerning the short- and long-run effects of high-quality preschool programs for participating children and the associated costs, benefits, and economic returns. Our review draws on evidence from rigorous evaluations of full-scale U.S. preschool programs implemented at the national, state, and local levels. We provide evidence for specific programs, as well as results from syntheses across multiple preschool program evaluations. We assemble evidence of the impacts of the preschool programs on children's school readiness. In cases where children have been followed beyond the preschool years, we also consider research regarding longer-term effects. Attention is also given to evidence of impacts for universal versus targeted programs and for...

    Cincinnati, Ohio, is one of a growing number of U.S. cities seeking to expand access to and raise the quality of preschool programs, especially for the city's most vulnerable children. To inform stakeholders regarding potential investments designed to expand preschool access and quality, this report compiles the most-reliable research evidence concerning the short- and long-run effects of high-quality preschool programs for participating children and the associated costs, benefits, and economic returns. Our review draws on evidence from rigorous evaluations of full-scale U.S. preschool programs implemented at the national, state, and local levels. We provide evidence for specific programs, as well as results from syntheses across multiple preschool program evaluations. We assemble evidence of the impacts of the preschool programs on children's school readiness. In cases where children have been followed beyond the preschool years, we also consider research regarding longer-term effects. Attention is also given to evidence of impacts for universal versus targeted programs and for programs of varying intensity. Key Findings

    • There are numerous examples of real-world preschool programs with rigorous evaluations that show improvements in school readiness for participating children.
    • Favorable impacts have been demonstrated for part- and full-day preschool programs, as well as one- and two-year programs, but the research is not definitive about the comparative effectiveness of these options.
    • High quality is a common element among the preschool programs with the largest effects on school readiness and with sustained effects at older ages.
    • Children across the income spectrum may benefit from high-quality preschool, but the impacts tend to be larger for more-disadvantaged children.
    • High-quality preschool programs show sustained benefits for other aspects of school performance other than achievement scores, such as lower rates of special education use, reduced grade repetition, and higher rates of high school graduation.
    • Improving the alignment between preschool and the early elementary grades may help sustain the initial boost in cognitive and noncognitive skills from preschool participation.
    • High-quality preschool programs represent a significant investment of resources, but that investment may be paid back through improved outcomes during the school-age years and beyond. (Author introduction)
  • Individual Author: Layzer, Jean I.; Goodson, Barbara D.; Brown-Lyons, Melanie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families was a ten-year research effort that was designed to provide policy-makers with information on the effects of Federal, state and local policies and programs on child care at the community level, and the employment and child care decisions of low-income families. It also provides insights into the characteristics and functioning of family child care, a type of care frequently used by low income families, and the experiences of parents and their children with this form of care. Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University’s Joseph Mailman School of Public Health in New York City conducted the study under contract to the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services.

    The study was initiated in the wake of sweeping welfare reform legislation enacted in 1996. The first component of the study examined how states and communities implemented policies and programs to meet the child care needs of families...

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families was a ten-year research effort that was designed to provide policy-makers with information on the effects of Federal, state and local policies and programs on child care at the community level, and the employment and child care decisions of low-income families. It also provides insights into the characteristics and functioning of family child care, a type of care frequently used by low income families, and the experiences of parents and their children with this form of care. Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University’s Joseph Mailman School of Public Health in New York City conducted the study under contract to the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S.  Department of Health and Human Services.

    The study was initiated in the wake of sweeping welfare reform legislation enacted in 1996. The first component of the study examined how states and communities implemented policies and programs to meet the child care needs of families moving from welfare to work, as well as those of other low-income parents. A second study component investigated the factors that shaped the child care decisions of low-income families and the role that child care subsidies played in those decisions. Finally, the study examined, in depth and over a period of 2½ years, a group of families that used various kinds of family child care and their child care providers, to develop a better understanding of the family child care environment and the extent to which the care provided in that environment supported parents’ work related needs and met children’s needs for a safe, healthy and nurturing environment. To address these objectives, study staff gathered information from 17 states about the administration of child care and welfare policies and programs, and about resource allocations. Within the 17 states, the study gathered information from agency staff and other key informants in 25 communities about the implementation of state and local policies and the influence of those policies and practices on the local child care market and on low income families. Information on states was collected three times: in 1999, 2001 and in 2002, and on communities four times over the same period to allow us to investigate change over time in policies and practices. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Layzer, Jean I.; Goodson, Barbara D.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2006

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families is a five-year research effort that will provide policy-makers with information on the effects of Federal, state and local policies and programs on child care at the community level, and the employment and child care decisions of low-income families. It will also provide insights into the characteristics and functioning of family child care, a type of care frequently used by low-income families, and the experiences of parents and their children with this form of care. Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University’s Joseph Mailman School of Public Health in New York City are conducting the study under contract to the Administration for Children & Families of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

    The study was initiated in the wake of sweeping welfare reform legislation enacted in 1996. It examines how states and communities implement policies and programs to meet the child care needs of families moving from welfare to work, as...

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families is a five-year research effort that will provide policy-makers with information on the effects of Federal, state and local policies and programs on child care at the community level, and the employment and child care decisions of low-income families. It will also provide insights into the characteristics and functioning of family child care, a type of care frequently used by low-income families, and the experiences of parents and their children with this form of care. Abt Associates Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University’s Joseph Mailman School of Public Health in New York City are conducting the study under contract to the Administration for Children & Families of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

    The study was initiated in the wake of sweeping welfare reform legislation enacted in 1996. It examines how states and communities implement policies and programs to meet the child care needs of families moving from welfare to work, as well as those of other low-income parents; how policies change over time; and how these policies, as well as other factors, affect the type, amount, and cost of care in communities. In addition, the study is investigating the factors that shape the child care decisions of low-income families and the role that child care subsidies play in those decisions. Finally, the study is examining, in depth and over a period of 2½ years, a group of families that use various kinds of family child care and their child care providers, to develop a better understanding of the family child care environment and the extent to which the care provided in that environment supports parents’ work-related needs and meets children’s needs for a safe, healthy and nurturing environment.

    To address these objectives, study staff gathered information from 17 states about the administration of child care and welfare policies and programs, and about resource allocations. Within the 17 states, the study gathered information from 25 communities about the implementation of state and local policies and the influence of those policies and practices on the local child care market and on low-income families. Information on states was collected three times: in 1999, 2001 and in 2002, and on communities four times over the same period to allow us to investigate change over time in policies and practices. (author abstract)

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