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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hill, Heather D.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2018

    Earnings and income variability have increased since the 1970s, particularly at the bottom of the income distribution. Considerable evidence suggests that childhood income levels—captured as average or point-in-time yearly income—are associated with numerous child and adult outcomes. The importance to child development of stable proximal processes during childhood suggests that income variability may also be important, particularly if it is unpredictable, unintentional, or does not reflect an upward trend in family income. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study documents trends since the 1970s in three dimensions of childhood income dynamics: level, variability, and growth (n = 7991). The analysis reveals that income variability during childhood has grown over time, while income growth rates have not. In addition, the economic context of childhood has diverged substantially by socioeconomic status, race, and family structure, with the most disadvantaged children facing a double-whammy of low income and high variability. (Author abstract)

    Earnings and income variability have increased since the 1970s, particularly at the bottom of the income distribution. Considerable evidence suggests that childhood income levels—captured as average or point-in-time yearly income—are associated with numerous child and adult outcomes. The importance to child development of stable proximal processes during childhood suggests that income variability may also be important, particularly if it is unpredictable, unintentional, or does not reflect an upward trend in family income. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study documents trends since the 1970s in three dimensions of childhood income dynamics: level, variability, and growth (n = 7991). The analysis reveals that income variability during childhood has grown over time, while income growth rates have not. In addition, the economic context of childhood has diverged substantially by socioeconomic status, race, and family structure, with the most disadvantaged children facing a double-whammy of low income and high variability. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bailey, Martha J. (editor); DiPrete, Thomas A. (editor)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2016

    Contents

    Five Decades of Remarkable but Slowing Change in U.S. Women’s Economic and Social Status and Political Participation 1

    Martha J. Bailey and Thomas A. DiPrete

    Part I. Working Hours, Opting Out, and the Gender Wage Gap

    The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012 34

    Tanya Byker

    Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium 71

    Kim A. Weeden, Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca

    Part II. Motherhood, Work, and the Family Pay Gap

    The Family Gap in Pay: New Evidence for 1967 to 2013 104

    Ipshita Pal and Jane Waldfogel

    Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations 128

    Claudia Buchmann and Anne McDaniel

    Part III. Women’s Work in Nontraditionally Female Occupations and STEM Fields

    Gender Differences in the Early Career Outcomes of College Graduates...

    Contents

    Five Decades of Remarkable but Slowing Change in U.S. Women’s Economic and Social Status and Political Participation 1

    Martha J. Bailey and Thomas A. DiPrete

    Part I. Working Hours, Opting Out, and the Gender Wage Gap

    The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012 34

    Tanya Byker

    Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium 71

    Kim A. Weeden, Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca

    Part II. Motherhood, Work, and the Family Pay Gap

    The Family Gap in Pay: New Evidence for 1967 to 2013 104

    Ipshita Pal and Jane Waldfogel

    Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations 128

    Claudia Buchmann and Anne McDaniel

    Part III. Women’s Work in Nontraditionally Female Occupations and STEM Fields

    Gender Differences in the Early Career Outcomes of College Graduates: The Influence of Sex-Type of Degree Field Across Four Cohorts 152

    Kimberlee A. Shauman

    Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter? 194

    Katherine Michelmore and Sharon Sassler

    Part IV. Marriage, Divorce, and Women’s Earnings

    Trends in Relative Earnings and Marital Dissolution: Are Wives Who Outearn Their Husbands Still More Likely to Divorce? 218

    Christine R. Schwartz and Pilar Gonalons-Pons

    Selection and Specialization in the Evolution of Marriage Earnings Gaps 237

    Chinhui Juhn and Kristin McCue

    Part V. Education, Work, and Political Participation

    Advances and Ambivalence: The Consequences of Women’s Educational and Workforce Changes for Women’s Political Participation in the United States, 1952 to 2012 272

    Ashley Jardina and Nancy Burns

     

  • Individual Author: Nielsen, Robert B.; Needles Fletcher, Cynthia ; Bartholomae, Suzanne
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2016

    The Great Recession and the slow recovery afterward affected families from all socioeconomic strata. However, by many measures low-income families were hardest hit. To highlight the consumer finance challenges currently faced by low-income families we combine data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation with a review of several relevant research areas. These include real income declines before and after the recession; trends in being unbanked/underbanked; the use of credit and alternative financial services; savings and asset accumulation, including homes and vehicles; and health insurance. A brief discussion of future directions for research completes the chapter. (Author abstract)

    The Great Recession and the slow recovery afterward affected families from all socioeconomic strata. However, by many measures low-income families were hardest hit. To highlight the consumer finance challenges currently faced by low-income families we combine data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation with a review of several relevant research areas. These include real income declines before and after the recession; trends in being unbanked/underbanked; the use of credit and alternative financial services; savings and asset accumulation, including homes and vehicles; and health insurance. A brief discussion of future directions for research completes the chapter. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Edin, Kathryn; Shaefer, H. Luke
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2015

    Jessica Compton’s family of four would have no income if she didn’t donate plasma twice a week at her local donation center in Tennessee. Modonna Harris and her teenage daughter Brianna, in Chicago, have gone for days with nothing to eat other than spoiled milk.

    After two decades of groundbreaking research on American poverty, Kathryn Edin noticed something she hadn’t seen before — households surviving on virtually no cash income. Edin, whose deep examination of her subjects’ lives has “turned sociology upside down” (Mother Jones), teamed with Luke Shaefer, an expert on surveys of the incomes of the poor. The two made a surprising discovery: the number of American families living on $2.00 per person, per day, has skyrocketed to one and a half million American households, including about three million children. 

    But the fuller story remained to be told. Where do these families live? How did they get so desperately poor? What do they do to survive? In search of answers, Edin and Shaefer traveled across the country to speak with families living in this extreme poverty...

    Jessica Compton’s family of four would have no income if she didn’t donate plasma twice a week at her local donation center in Tennessee. Modonna Harris and her teenage daughter Brianna, in Chicago, have gone for days with nothing to eat other than spoiled milk.

    After two decades of groundbreaking research on American poverty, Kathryn Edin noticed something she hadn’t seen before — households surviving on virtually no cash income. Edin, whose deep examination of her subjects’ lives has “turned sociology upside down” (Mother Jones), teamed with Luke Shaefer, an expert on surveys of the incomes of the poor. The two made a surprising discovery: the number of American families living on $2.00 per person, per day, has skyrocketed to one and a half million American households, including about three million children. 

    But the fuller story remained to be told. Where do these families live? How did they get so desperately poor? What do they do to survive? In search of answers, Edin and Shaefer traveled across the country to speak with families living in this extreme poverty. Through the book’s many compelling profiles, moving and startling answers emerge: a low-wage labor market that increasingly fails to deliver a living wage, and a growing but hidden landscape of survival strategies among America’s extreme poor. Not just a powerful exposé, $2.00 a Day delivers new evidence and new ideas to our national debate on income inequality. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kneebone, Elizabeth; Berube, Alan
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2013

    Kneebone and Berube paint a new picture of poverty in America as well as the best ways to combat it. Confronting Suburban Poverty in America offers a series of workable recommendations for public, private, and nonprofit leaders seeking to modernize poverty alleviation and community development strategies and connect residents with economic opportunity. The authors highlight efforts in metro areas where local leaders are learning how to do more with less and adjusting their approaches to address the metropolitan scale of poverty —for example, integrating services and service delivery, collaborating across sectors and jurisdictions, and using data-driven and flexible funding strategies. (author abstract)

    Kneebone and Berube paint a new picture of poverty in America as well as the best ways to combat it. Confronting Suburban Poverty in America offers a series of workable recommendations for public, private, and nonprofit leaders seeking to modernize poverty alleviation and community development strategies and connect residents with economic opportunity. The authors highlight efforts in metro areas where local leaders are learning how to do more with less and adjusting their approaches to address the metropolitan scale of poverty —for example, integrating services and service delivery, collaborating across sectors and jurisdictions, and using data-driven and flexible funding strategies. (author abstract)

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