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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Smith, Richard
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    Although the Federal government is responsible for immigration policy, immigrant integration into the workforce and community happens through the work of local governments and non-governmental organizations. Recent scholarship has proposed that urban spatial structure influences whether local governments implement policy to incorporate immigrants which in turn shapes the context of reception. Specifically, some have argued that a bifurcated population (e.g., about half Hispanic and half Anglo), would be more likely to have immigrant friendly policy outcomes for immigrants than a multiethnic population (i.e., a mix of ethnicities and racialized populations but no majority), which in turn would be more likely to have immigrant friendly outcomes than a homogeneously Anglo population. However, the state of the literature is generally limited examine a small set of cases in depth, or to look at specific immigrant friendly or anti-immigrant ordinances as policy outcomes. This question is important for intergovernmental relationships (e.g., Federal requirements to support those with...

    Although the Federal government is responsible for immigration policy, immigrant integration into the workforce and community happens through the work of local governments and non-governmental organizations. Recent scholarship has proposed that urban spatial structure influences whether local governments implement policy to incorporate immigrants which in turn shapes the context of reception. Specifically, some have argued that a bifurcated population (e.g., about half Hispanic and half Anglo), would be more likely to have immigrant friendly policy outcomes for immigrants than a multiethnic population (i.e., a mix of ethnicities and racialized populations but no majority), which in turn would be more likely to have immigrant friendly outcomes than a homogeneously Anglo population. However, the state of the literature is generally limited examine a small set of cases in depth, or to look at specific immigrant friendly or anti-immigrant ordinances as policy outcomes. This question is important for intergovernmental relationships (e.g., Federal requirements to support those with Limited English Proficiency) as well as community engagement. In order to build evidence to inform decision making, I conduct content analysis of annual reports from local governments (n=127) that participated in place-based community development initiatives submitted to the US Dept. of Housing and Urban Development from 1996 – 2008 to provide insight into this proposed relationship. First, I categorize these local governments as including immigrant-related projects or programs. Second, I categorize the neighborhoods designated within the local governments by type of spatial structure (i.e., homogenous, bifurcated, multiethnic) using census data for the designated areas. Then I test associations between having immigrant-related projects or programs and the designated neighborhoods’ spatial structures and population characteristics. I find that designated neighborhoods with increasing immigrant populations, Hispanic bifurcation, or homogeneously Hispanic were associated with local governments developing immigrant-related projects and programs. Homogeneously Hispanic and bifurcated Hispanic places had higher odds of immigrant friendly policy outcomes than multiethnic places. There were no statistically significant difference between multiethnic places and bifurcated Black/White, or homogeneously Black or White places. While this research is not generalizable outside the study population, it is consistent with the theory that bifurcated places are more likely to have immigrant-friendly policy outcomes. This research is also consistent with theory in that multiethnic places may not successfully form coalitions for change. In these instances, it may rest on the action of local government civil servants to respond to population changes. Implications for research, policy, and performance management dashboards are discussed. For example, the American Community Survey has annual updates of population data that could be used to visualize urban spatial structure against self-reported English language attainment to inform local decision making regarding immigrant integration. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Henry, Meghan; Watt, Rian; Rosenthal, Lily; Shivji, Azim
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This report outlines the key findings of the 2017 Point-In-Time (PIT) count and Housing Inventory Count (HIC) conducted in January 2017. Specifically, this report provides 2017 national, state, and CoC-level PIT and HIC estimates of homelessness, as well as estimates of chronically homeless persons, homeless veterans, and homeless children and youth. (Author summary)

    This report outlines the key findings of the 2017 Point-In-Time (PIT) count and Housing Inventory Count (HIC) conducted in January 2017. Specifically, this report provides 2017 national, state, and CoC-level PIT and HIC estimates of homelessness, as well as estimates of chronically homeless persons, homeless veterans, and homeless children and youth. (Author summary)

  • Individual Author: Kalmijn, Matthijs
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Data on secondary school children in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden show that large differences exist in family structure within the minority population: In some groups, father absence is more common than among natives; in others, it is less common. These patterns reflect the differences in family structure in the origin countries, but the migration process also plays a role. Next, it is found that father absence has negative effects on immigrant children’s well-being, but these effects appear weaker in minority groups where father absence is more common. Heterogeneous effects are interpreted in terms of different degrees of institutionalization of father absence in different minority groups. (Author abstract)

     

    Data on secondary school children in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden show that large differences exist in family structure within the minority population: In some groups, father absence is more common than among natives; in others, it is less common. These patterns reflect the differences in family structure in the origin countries, but the migration process also plays a role. Next, it is found that father absence has negative effects on immigrant children’s well-being, but these effects appear weaker in minority groups where father absence is more common. Heterogeneous effects are interpreted in terms of different degrees of institutionalization of father absence in different minority groups. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Kang, Jeehye; Cohen, Philip N.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examines the association between the presence of co-resident extended kin and children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The paper demonstrates the differential role of extended kin by family structure, as well as across parental immigrant status – specifically, nativity and documentation status. Children in the sample were found to be disadvantaged in extended family households, especially with regard to internalizing behaviors. This disadvantageous association was found mostly among married-parent extended family households, whereas there was no association between the presence of extended kin and behavior problems in children from single-parent families. This pattern emerged more clearly among children of documented immigrants, compared to those with native-born parents and those whose parents were unauthorized immigrants. These findings suggest a need to modify previous theories on extended family living arrangements; they also provide policy implications for immigrant families. (Author...

    Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), this paper examines the association between the presence of co-resident extended kin and children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The paper demonstrates the differential role of extended kin by family structure, as well as across parental immigrant status – specifically, nativity and documentation status. Children in the sample were found to be disadvantaged in extended family households, especially with regard to internalizing behaviors. This disadvantageous association was found mostly among married-parent extended family households, whereas there was no association between the presence of extended kin and behavior problems in children from single-parent families. This pattern emerged more clearly among children of documented immigrants, compared to those with native-born parents and those whose parents were unauthorized immigrants. These findings suggest a need to modify previous theories on extended family living arrangements; they also provide policy implications for immigrant families. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Hernandez, Diana; Jiang, Yang; Carrion, Daniel; Phillips, Douglas; Aratani, Yumiko
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    The costs for rent and utilities account for the largest share of living expenses, yet these two critical dimensions of material hardship have seldom been examined concurrently in population based studies. This paper employs multivariate statistical analysis using American Community Survey data to demonstrate the relative risk ratio of low-income renter-occupied households with children experiencing “rent burden,” “energy insecurity,” or a “double burden” as opposed to no burden. Findings suggest that low-income households are more likely to experience these economic hardships in general but that specific groups are disproportionately burdened in different ways. For instance, whereas immigrants are more likely to experience rental burden, they are less likely to experience energy insecurity and are also spared from the double burden. In contrast, native-born African Americans are more likely than all other groups to experience the double burden. These results may be driven by the housing stock available to certain groups due to racial residential segregation, decisions regarding...

    The costs for rent and utilities account for the largest share of living expenses, yet these two critical dimensions of material hardship have seldom been examined concurrently in population based studies. This paper employs multivariate statistical analysis using American Community Survey data to demonstrate the relative risk ratio of low-income renter-occupied households with children experiencing “rent burden,” “energy insecurity,” or a “double burden” as opposed to no burden. Findings suggest that low-income households are more likely to experience these economic hardships in general but that specific groups are disproportionately burdened in different ways. For instance, whereas immigrants are more likely to experience rental burden, they are less likely to experience energy insecurity and are also spared from the double burden. In contrast, native-born African Americans are more likely than all other groups to experience the double burden. These results may be driven by the housing stock available to certain groups due to racial residential segregation, decisions regarding the quality of housing low-income householders are able to afford, as well as home country values, such as modest living and energy conservation practices, among immigrant families. This paper also points to important policy gaps in safety net benefits related to housing and energy targeting low-income households. (Author abstract)

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