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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Larin, Kathryn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work...

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work requirements, and 3) partnered with state and local organizations to deliver services. USDA has taken steps to increase support and oversight of SNAP E&T since 2014, including collecting new data on participant outcomes from states. GAO has ongoing work reviewing SNAP E&T programs, including USDA oversight. USDA and the states partner to address issues that affect program integrity, including improper payments and fraud, and USDA has taken some steps to address challenges in these areas, but issues remain. 

    • Improper Payments. In 2016, GAO reviewed SNAP improper payment rates and found that states’ adoption of program flexibilities and changes in federal SNAP policy in the previous decade, as well as improper payment rate calculation methods, likely affected these rates. Although USDA reported improper payment estimates for SNAP in previous years, USDA did not report an estimate for benefits paid in fiscal years 2015 or 2016 due to data quality issues in some states. USDA has since been working with the states to improve improper payment estimates for the fiscal year 2017 review.
    • Recipient Fraud. In 2014, GAO made recommendations to USDA to address challenges states faced in combatting recipient fraud. For example, GAO found that USDA’s guidance on the use of transaction data to uncover potential trafficking lacked specificity and recommended USDA develop additional guidance. Since then, USDA has provided technical assistance to some states, including on the use of data analytics. GAO has ongoing work reviewing states’ use of data analytics to identify SNAP recipient fraud.
    • Retailer Trafficking. In 2006, GAO identified several ways in which SNAP was vulnerable to retailer trafficking—a practice involving the exchange of benefits for cash or non-food items. For example, USDA had not conducted analyses to identify high-risk retailers and target its resources. Since then, USDA has established risk levels for retailers based on various factors. GAO has ongoing work assessing how USDA prevents, detects, and responds to retailer trafficking and reviewing the usefulness of USDA’s estimates of the extent of SNAP retailer trafficking. (Author introduction)
  • Individual Author: Acs, Gregory; Wheaton, Laura; Waxman, Elaine
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    We examine proposed legislation from the House Committee on Agriculture to reauthorize the Farm Bill, which significantly expands and intensifies work requirements in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) and implements significant penalties if an individual or a household is not in compliance. Using the Urban Institute’s newly developed ATTIS (Analysis of Taxes, Transfers and Income Security) microsimulation model based on the American Community Survey (ACS) to assess how many individuals and households would likely be affected by the House Committee’s proposal at the national level as well as in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, we find 7.9 million SNAP participants in an average month in 2018 would be subject to new requirements proposed by the bill. Among this group, 5.2 million or 66 percent would not meet the proposed work requirement based on their current work patterns, although some might receive an exemption or live in an area where the requirements are waived. We also find that over a course of...

    We examine proposed legislation from the House Committee on Agriculture to reauthorize the Farm Bill, which significantly expands and intensifies work requirements in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) and implements significant penalties if an individual or a household is not in compliance. Using the Urban Institute’s newly developed ATTIS (Analysis of Taxes, Transfers and Income Security) microsimulation model based on the American Community Survey (ACS) to assess how many individuals and households would likely be affected by the House Committee’s proposal at the national level as well as in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, we find 7.9 million SNAP participants in an average month in 2018 would be subject to new requirements proposed by the bill. Among this group, 5.2 million or 66 percent would not meet the proposed work requirement based on their current work patterns, although some might receive an exemption or live in an area where the requirements are waived. We also find that over a course of a year, 9.8 million SNAP participants would be subject to, but would not meet, work requirements for at least one month in 2018, but 52 percent of this group would meet the work requirements in at least one other month in the year. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Thrasher, Dory
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recertification process.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recertification process.

  • Individual Author: Rowe, Gretchen; Brown, Elizabeth; Estes, Brian
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This study uses surveys of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. This study uses surveys of SNAP E&T participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. (Author abstract)

    This study uses surveys of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. This study uses surveys of SNAP E&T participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Mabli, James; Cheban, Irina
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance benefits to low-income people in an effort to reduce hunger and improve health and well-being. It is also a critical work support for many people. Policymakers recently have sought to strengthen the program participants’ pathways toward self-sufficiency, including considering existing and new work requirements for participants and improving and expanding the SNAP Employment and Training program that assists unemployed and underemployed participants in job search, job skills training, education, and work experience and training. However, relatively little is known about the labor force participation and employment decisions of SNAP participants, job characteristics among employed participants, and barriers to work among participants who are unemployed or out of the labor force (referred to as non-employed). This report helps to fill this gap by using the most recently available national longitudinal survey data to examine the employment experiences of SNAP participants. (Author abstract)

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance benefits to low-income people in an effort to reduce hunger and improve health and well-being. It is also a critical work support for many people. Policymakers recently have sought to strengthen the program participants’ pathways toward self-sufficiency, including considering existing and new work requirements for participants and improving and expanding the SNAP Employment and Training program that assists unemployed and underemployed participants in job search, job skills training, education, and work experience and training. However, relatively little is known about the labor force participation and employment decisions of SNAP participants, job characteristics among employed participants, and barriers to work among participants who are unemployed or out of the labor force (referred to as non-employed). This report helps to fill this gap by using the most recently available national longitudinal survey data to examine the employment experiences of SNAP participants. (Author abstract)

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