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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Papageorge, Nicholas W.; Thom, Kevin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Recent advances have led to the discovery of specific genetic variants that predict educational attainment. We study how these variants, summarized as a genetic score variable, are associated with human capital accumulation and labor market outcomes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We demonstrate that the same genetic score that predicts education is also associated with higher wages, but only among individuals with a college education. Moreover, the genetic gradient in wages has grown in more recent birth cohorts, consistent with interactions between technological change and labor market ability. We also show that individuals who grew up in economically disadvantaged households are less likely to go to college when compared to individuals with the same genetic score, but from higher socioeconomic status households. Our findings provide support for the idea that childhood socioeconomic status is an important moderator of the economic returns to genetic endowments. Moreover, the finding that childhood poverty limits the educational attainment of high-ability individuals...

    Recent advances have led to the discovery of specific genetic variants that predict educational attainment. We study how these variants, summarized as a genetic score variable, are associated with human capital accumulation and labor market outcomes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We demonstrate that the same genetic score that predicts education is also associated with higher wages, but only among individuals with a college education. Moreover, the genetic gradient in wages has grown in more recent birth cohorts, consistent with interactions between technological change and labor market ability. We also show that individuals who grew up in economically disadvantaged households are less likely to go to college when compared to individuals with the same genetic score, but from higher socioeconomic status households. Our findings provide support for the idea that childhood socioeconomic status is an important moderator of the economic returns to genetic endowments. Moreover, the finding that childhood poverty limits the educational attainment of high-ability individuals suggests the existence of unrealized human potential. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: The Annie E. Casey Foundation
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    Nearly half of the nation’s families with young children struggle to make ends meet. A new KIDS COUNT policy report makes the case for creating opportunity for families by addressing the needs of parents and their children simultaneously. Creating Opportunity for Families: A Two-Generation Approach describes a new approach to reducing poverty, which calls for connecting low-income families with early childhood education, job training and other tools to achieve financial stability and break the cycle of poverty — and recommends ways to help equip parents and children with what they need to thrive (author abstract).

    Nearly half of the nation’s families with young children struggle to make ends meet. A new KIDS COUNT policy report makes the case for creating opportunity for families by addressing the needs of parents and their children simultaneously. Creating Opportunity for Families: A Two-Generation Approach describes a new approach to reducing poverty, which calls for connecting low-income families with early childhood education, job training and other tools to achieve financial stability and break the cycle of poverty — and recommends ways to help equip parents and children with what they need to thrive (author abstract).

  • Individual Author: Hernandez, Donald J. ; Napierala, Jeffrey S.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    Mother’s Education and Children’s Outcomes: How Dual-Generation Programs Offer Increased Opportunities for America’s Children is the second in a series of the Foundation for Child Development’s Disparities Among America’s Children reports.

    It offers the first-ever analysis of economic, education, and health indicators for children whose mothers have not graduated from high school, compared to children whose mothers have higher levels of education.One in every eight children in the U.S. lives with a mother who has not graduated from high school. These children experience especially large disparities compared to children whose mothers have a bachelor degree. Key findings include the following: Disparities separating children whose  (1)   mothers had not graduated from high school, compared to those whose (2)   mothers had a bachelor degree were, respectively: 

    • 53 vs. 4 percent for the official federal poverty rate
    • 84 vs. 13 percent for the low-income rate (family income below twice the official federal poverty threshold)
    • $25,000 vs...

    Mother’s Education and Children’s Outcomes: How Dual-Generation Programs Offer Increased Opportunities for America’s Children is the second in a series of the Foundation for Child Development’s Disparities Among America’s Children reports.

    It offers the first-ever analysis of economic, education, and health indicators for children whose mothers have not graduated from high school, compared to children whose mothers have higher levels of education.One in every eight children in the U.S. lives with a mother who has not graduated from high school. These children experience especially large disparities compared to children whose mothers have a bachelor degree. Key findings include the following: Disparities separating children whose  (1)   mothers had not graduated from high school, compared to those whose (2)   mothers had a bachelor degree were, respectively: 

    • 53 vs. 4 percent for the official federal poverty rate
    • 84 vs. 13 percent for the low-income rate (family income below twice the official federal poverty threshold)
    • $25,000 vs. $106,500 for median family income
    • 16 vs. 49 percent for reading proficiently (at grade level) in Eighth Grade
    • 16 vs. 52 percent for proficiency in mathematics (at grade level) in Eighth Grade

    The enormous disparities in well-being identified point toward the value and need for comprehensive Dual-Generation strategies that offer high-quality PreK-3rd education for children, effective job training for parents that leads directly to well-paid work, and additional public services — such as health, nutrition, food, and housing — which enable low-income families to overcome barriers to success. Mother’s Education and Children’s Outcomes identifies federal, state, and local policy solutions to reduce these disparities. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Sharkey, Patrick; Elwert, Felix
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    This study examines how the neighborhood environments experienced over multiple generations of a family influence children's cognitive ability. Building on recent research showing strong continuity in neighborhood environments across generations of family members, the authors argue for a revised perspective on “neighborhood effects” that considers the ways in which the neighborhood environment in one generation may have a lingering impact on the next generation. To analyze multigenerational effects, the authors use newly developed methods designed to estimate unbiased treatment effects when treatments and confounders vary over time. The results confirm a powerful link between neighborhoods and cognitive ability that extends across generations. A family's exposure to neighborhood poverty across two consecutive generations reduces child cognitive ability by more than half a standard deviation. A formal sensitivity analysis suggests that results are robust to unobserved selection bias. (Author abstract)

    This study examines how the neighborhood environments experienced over multiple generations of a family influence children's cognitive ability. Building on recent research showing strong continuity in neighborhood environments across generations of family members, the authors argue for a revised perspective on “neighborhood effects” that considers the ways in which the neighborhood environment in one generation may have a lingering impact on the next generation. To analyze multigenerational effects, the authors use newly developed methods designed to estimate unbiased treatment effects when treatments and confounders vary over time. The results confirm a powerful link between neighborhoods and cognitive ability that extends across generations. A family's exposure to neighborhood poverty across two consecutive generations reduces child cognitive ability by more than half a standard deviation. A formal sensitivity analysis suggests that results are robust to unobserved selection bias. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Redd, Zakia; Karver, Tahilin Sanchez; Murphey, David; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Knewstub, Dylan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2011

    As poverty has become more widespread in the United States, it is important to acknowledge the large body of research documenting the association between poverty or economic hardship and negative outcomes for parents, especially women, and their children. One of the primary concerns about families living in poverty, particularly single parents and children, is that, due to their limited financial resources, they may experience material hardships and struggle to meet basic needs for food, housing, clothing, and so on. However, research on poverty finds that its effects extend beyond purchasing power and into other aspects of life...

    This brief draws on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, and presents a sharpened two-generation lens on the poverty and low-income status of children and families during the first decade of the 21st century. In addition, it presents data on differences in poverty and low-income status across race and ethnic origin, age, family structure, gender, education, full-time employment status, and geography. The brief is organized into four sections and...

    As poverty has become more widespread in the United States, it is important to acknowledge the large body of research documenting the association between poverty or economic hardship and negative outcomes for parents, especially women, and their children. One of the primary concerns about families living in poverty, particularly single parents and children, is that, due to their limited financial resources, they may experience material hardships and struggle to meet basic needs for food, housing, clothing, and so on. However, research on poverty finds that its effects extend beyond purchasing power and into other aspects of life...

    This brief draws on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, and presents a sharpened two-generation lens on the poverty and low-income status of children and families during the first decade of the 21st century. In addition, it presents data on differences in poverty and low-income status across race and ethnic origin, age, family structure, gender, education, full-time employment status, and geography. The brief is organized into four sections and ends with a summary of findings. Following this overview and a brief summary of the poverty data referenced in this brief, the first section focuses on the two-generation frame of family households with children, highlighting the shifting family structure of families in the United States; the second section focuses on children; the third section focuses on adults; and the fourth section highlights geographic areas with a high concentration of poverty. The brief concludes with a summary of important distinctions in the patterns of poverty and low-income status across a number of different categories. (author introduction)

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