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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Larin, Kathryn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work...

    Overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and administered by states, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) programs served about 0.5 percent of the approximately 43.5 million SNAP recipients in an average month of fiscal year 2016, according to the most recent USDA data available. These programs are generally designed to help SNAP recipients increase their ability to obtain regular employment through services such as job search and training. Some recipients may be required to participate. According to USDA, about 14 percent of SNAP recipients were subject to work requirements in an average month of fiscal year 2016, while others, such as children and the elderly, were generally exempt from these requirements. States have flexibility in how they design their E&T programs. Over the last several years, states have 1) increasingly moved away from programs that mandate participation, 2) focused on serving able-bodied adults without dependents whose benefits are generally time-limited unless they comply with work requirements, and 3) partnered with state and local organizations to deliver services. USDA has taken steps to increase support and oversight of SNAP E&T since 2014, including collecting new data on participant outcomes from states. GAO has ongoing work reviewing SNAP E&T programs, including USDA oversight. USDA and the states partner to address issues that affect program integrity, including improper payments and fraud, and USDA has taken some steps to address challenges in these areas, but issues remain. 

    • Improper Payments. In 2016, GAO reviewed SNAP improper payment rates and found that states’ adoption of program flexibilities and changes in federal SNAP policy in the previous decade, as well as improper payment rate calculation methods, likely affected these rates. Although USDA reported improper payment estimates for SNAP in previous years, USDA did not report an estimate for benefits paid in fiscal years 2015 or 2016 due to data quality issues in some states. USDA has since been working with the states to improve improper payment estimates for the fiscal year 2017 review.
    • Recipient Fraud. In 2014, GAO made recommendations to USDA to address challenges states faced in combatting recipient fraud. For example, GAO found that USDA’s guidance on the use of transaction data to uncover potential trafficking lacked specificity and recommended USDA develop additional guidance. Since then, USDA has provided technical assistance to some states, including on the use of data analytics. GAO has ongoing work reviewing states’ use of data analytics to identify SNAP recipient fraud.
    • Retailer Trafficking. In 2006, GAO identified several ways in which SNAP was vulnerable to retailer trafficking—a practice involving the exchange of benefits for cash or non-food items. For example, USDA had not conducted analyses to identify high-risk retailers and target its resources. Since then, USDA has established risk levels for retailers based on various factors. GAO has ongoing work assessing how USDA prevents, detects, and responds to retailer trafficking and reviewing the usefulness of USDA’s estimates of the extent of SNAP retailer trafficking. (Author introduction)
  • Individual Author: Rowe, Gretchen; Brown, Elizabeth; Estes, Brian
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This study uses surveys of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. This study uses surveys of SNAP E&T participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. (Author abstract)

    This study uses surveys of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Employment and Training (E&T) participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. This study uses surveys of SNAP E&T participants and E&T providers to describe the characteristics of SNAP participants who use E&T services and the characteristics of organizations that provide the services. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Amaro, Christina M. ; Roberts, Michael C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    The purpose of the current study was to provide a descriptive case study of a dollar-for-dollar match program at farmers’ markets for families using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. Specifically, the study sought to examine characteristics (e.g., demographics, household food security), needs, and benefits of families using the match program. It also sought to examine recommendations from families in order to improve the match program. Participants included 143 parents and caregivers of children from ages 5–10, who received services through the weekly match program at markets designed for individuals receiving SNAP benefits. While shopping at farmers’ markets, parents completed questionnaires regarding several domains including service usage, shopping habits, food consumption patterns, and household food security. Parents reported that they strongly agreed that fruits and vegetables were important to their health. However, only 35.9% of parents indicated that they strongly agreed that they could afford to buy fresh fruits and vegetables. Overall, parents...

    The purpose of the current study was to provide a descriptive case study of a dollar-for-dollar match program at farmers’ markets for families using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. Specifically, the study sought to examine characteristics (e.g., demographics, household food security), needs, and benefits of families using the match program. It also sought to examine recommendations from families in order to improve the match program. Participants included 143 parents and caregivers of children from ages 5–10, who received services through the weekly match program at markets designed for individuals receiving SNAP benefits. While shopping at farmers’ markets, parents completed questionnaires regarding several domains including service usage, shopping habits, food consumption patterns, and household food security. Parents reported that they strongly agreed that fruits and vegetables were important to their health. However, only 35.9% of parents indicated that they strongly agreed that they could afford to buy fresh fruits and vegetables. Overall, parents reported a positive impact of service use and appeared to value fresh fruits and vegetables. Implications for policy development as well as recommendations for future studies focusing on health promotion in children and families are discussed. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Garasky, Steven; Mbwana, Kassim; Chamberlain, Anne; Bowman, Nicole; Corea, Carolyn; Ampaabeng, Samuel; Patterson, Luke; Mickish-Gross, Cassandra
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Section 4004 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-74) authorized a study to examine the feasibility of Tribal administration of Federal nutrition assistance programs, services, functions, and activities (or portions thereof), in lieu of administration by State agencies or other entities. This report is the result of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) research led by IMPAQ International, LLC, and its subcontractors.

    This research examined the basic requirements of administering four major Federal nutrition assistance programs, as well as the services, functions, and activities associated with administration: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), the School Breakfast Program (SBP), and the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). The research focused on these programs because it was not feasible to adequately address all nutrition assistance programs in detail in the time available for the study nor was it possible to comprehensively investigate all administrative...

    Section 4004 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-74) authorized a study to examine the feasibility of Tribal administration of Federal nutrition assistance programs, services, functions, and activities (or portions thereof), in lieu of administration by State agencies or other entities. This report is the result of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) research led by IMPAQ International, LLC, and its subcontractors.

    This research examined the basic requirements of administering four major Federal nutrition assistance programs, as well as the services, functions, and activities associated with administration: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), the School Breakfast Program (SBP), and the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). The research focused on these programs because it was not feasible to adequately address all nutrition assistance programs in detail in the time available for the study nor was it possible to comprehensively investigate all administrative requirements of the four focal programs. Given these parameters, researchers engaged with representatives of the 566 Federally recognized American Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Villages to accomplish two goals: 1) to understand their interest in administering the focal or other Federal nutrition programs, and 2) to learn about Tribes’ existing administrative resources, as well as the challenges and needs they anticipate based on their experience with other Federal programs. Tribes’ responses suggest policy changes that would be needed to facilitate Tribal administration of Federal nutrition assistance programs. (author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Pindus, Nancy; Levy, Diane K.; Biess, Jennifer; Simington, Jasmine; Hedman, Carl; Hafford, Carol; Smylie, Jodie
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition assistance to Tribal communities through the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR). The last nationally representative study of FDPIR was based on 1989 data. Since that time, there have been many changes in FDPIR affecting eligibility, warehouse operations and distribution, customer service, and improvements in the types and variety of products offered in the food package. This report provides an update of FDPIR participant characteristics and program operations, based on a nationally representative sample of participants and sites. (Author abstract)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition assistance to Tribal communities through the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR). The last nationally representative study of FDPIR was based on 1989 data. Since that time, there have been many changes in FDPIR affecting eligibility, warehouse operations and distribution, customer service, and improvements in the types and variety of products offered in the food package. This report provides an update of FDPIR participant characteristics and program operations, based on a nationally representative sample of participants and sites. (Author abstract)

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