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  • Individual Author: O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Leschke, Janine; Ortlieb, Renate; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin; Villa, Paola
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2019

    Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. 

    The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3½-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; http://www.style-research.eu) coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under...

    Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. 

    The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3½-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; http://www.style-research.eu) coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under 5 million euros and involving 25 research partners; an international advisory network and local advisory boards of employers, unions, and policymakers; and non-governmental organizations from more than 20 European countries, STYLE is one of the largest European Commission-funded research projects to exist on this topic. Consequently, this book will appeal to an array of audiences, including academic and policy researchers in sociology, political science, economics, management studies, and more particular labor market and social policy; policy communities; and bachelor's- and master's-level students in courses on European studies or any of the aforementioned subject areas. (Author description)

    Contents: 
     
    Introduction: Comparing youth transitions in Europe: Joblessness, insecurity, institutions, and inequality 
    Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa
     
    PART I. COMPARING PROBLEMATIC YOUTH TRANSITIONS TO WORK (pages 31-192)
     
    Where do young people work?
    Raffaele Grotti, Helen Russell, and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    How does the performance of school-to-work transition regimes vary in the European Union?
    Kari P. Hadjivassiliou, Arianna Tassinari, Werner Eichhorst, and Florian Wozny
     
    Stressed economies, distressed policies, and distraught young people: European policies and outcomes from a youth perspective 
    Mark Smith, Janine Leschke, Helen Russell, and Paola Villa
     
    Labor market flexibility and income security: Changes for European youth during the Great Recession
    Janine Leschke and Mairéad Finn
     
    Policy transfer and innovation for building resilient bridges to the youth labor market 
    Maria Petmesidou and María González Menéndez
     
    PART II. TRANSITIONS AROUND WORK AND THE FAMILY (pages 193-386)
     
    How do youth labor flows differ from those of older workers? 
    Vladislav Flek, Martin Hála, and Martina Mysíková
     
    How can young people’s employment quality be assessed dynamically?
    Gabriella Berloffa, Eleonora Matteazzi, Gabriele Mazzolini, Alina Sandor, and Paola Villa
     
    Youth transitions and job quality: How long should they wait and what difference does the family make? 
    Marianna Filandri, Tiziana Nazio, and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    The worklessness legacy: Do working mothers make a difference? 
    Gabriella Berloffa, Eleonora Matteazzi, and Paola Villa
     
    Stuck in the parental nest? The effect of the economic crisis on young Europeans’ living arrangements 
    Fernanda Mazzotta and Lavinia Parisi
     
    Income sharing and spending decisions of young people living with their parents 
    Márton Medgyesi and Ildikó Nagy
     
    PART III. TRANSITIONS ACROSS EUROPE (pages 387-500)
     
    What happens to young people who move to another country to find work? 
    Mehtap Akguc and Miroslav Beblavý
     
    Europe’s promise for jobs? Labor market integration of young European Union migrant citizens in Germany and the United Kingdom 
    Thees F. Spreckelsen, Janine Leschke, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser
     
    How do labor market intermediaries help young Eastern Europeans find work? 
    Renate Ortlieb and Silvana Weiss
     
    What are the employment prospects for young Estonian and Slovak return migrants? 
    Jaan Masso, Lucia Mýtna Kureková, Maryna Tverdostup, and Zuzana Zilincikova
     
    PART IV. CHALLENGING FUTURES FOR YOUTH (pages 501-706)
     
    Origins and future of the concept of NEETs in the European policy agenda 
    Massimiliano Mascherini
     
    Youth overeducation in Europe: Is there scope for a common policy approach? 
    Seamus McGuinness, Adele Bergin, and Adele Whelan
     
    Do scarring effects vary by ethnicity and gender? 
    Carolina V. Zuccotti and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    Do business start-ups create high-quality jobs for young people? 
    Renate Ortlieb, Maura Sheehan, and Jaan Masso
     
    Are the work values of the younger generations changing? 
    Gábor Hajdu and Endre Sik
     
    How can trade unions in Europe connect with young workers? 
    Kurt Vandaele
     
    Integrating perspectives on youth labor in transition: Economic production, social reproduction, and policy learning 
    Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa

     

  • Individual Author: Berger, Lawrence M. (ed.); Cancian, Maria (ed.); Magnuson, Katherine (ed.)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2018

    The 2016 presidential election has brought to the fore proposals to fundamentally restructure the U.S. anti-poverty safety net. Even though much of the current debate centers on shrinking or eliminating federal programs, we believe it is necessary and useful to explore alternatives that represent new approaches and significant innovations to existing policy and programs. This double issue of RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences builds on and extends the scholarly conversation on the state of current U.S. anti-poverty policy by high-lighting a collection of related innovative and specific policy proposals for the United States. Well before the election, the authors of the articles in this volume were explicitly tasked with proposing substantially new policies solidly grounded in social science evidence that have the potential to transform anti-poverty policy. Assuming the goal to be reducing poverty among the U.S. population, we asked what new ideas should be seriously considered. The authors responded with carefully crafted proposals that tackle poverty...

    The 2016 presidential election has brought to the fore proposals to fundamentally restructure the U.S. anti-poverty safety net. Even though much of the current debate centers on shrinking or eliminating federal programs, we believe it is necessary and useful to explore alternatives that represent new approaches and significant innovations to existing policy and programs. This double issue of RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences builds on and extends the scholarly conversation on the state of current U.S. anti-poverty policy by high-lighting a collection of related innovative and specific policy proposals for the United States. Well before the election, the authors of the articles in this volume were explicitly tasked with proposing substantially new policies solidly grounded in social science evidence that have the potential to transform anti-poverty policy. Assuming the goal to be reducing poverty among the U.S. population, we asked what new ideas should be seriously considered. The authors responded with carefully crafted proposals that tackle poverty from a variety of perspectives. Some of these proposals are more of a departure from existing policies than others, some borrow from other countries or revive old ideas, some are narrow in focus and others much broader, but all seek to move anti-poverty efforts into new territory. (Author abstract) 

    Contents:

    Introduction

    Anti-Poverty Policy Innovations: New Proposals for Addressing Poverty in the United States

    Lawrence Berger, Maria Cancian, and Katherine Magnuson

    Part I. Employment, Education, and Family Planning

    Coupling a Federal Minimum Wage Hike with Public Investments to Make Work Pay and Reduce Poverty

    Jennifer Romich and Heather Hill

    A Path to Ending Poverty by Way of Ending Unemployment: A Federal Job Guarantee

    Mark Paul, William Darity Jr., Darrick Hamilton, and Khaing Zaw

    Working to Reduce Poverty: A National Subsidized Employment Proposal

    Indivar Dutta-Gupta, Kali Grant, Julie Kerksick, Dan Bloom, and Ajay Chaudry 

    A "Race to the Top" in Public Higher Education to Improve Education and Employment Among the Poor

    Harry Holzer

    Postsecondary Pathways out of Poverty: City University of New York Accelerated Study in Associate Programs and the Case for National Policy

    Diana Strumbos, Donna Linderman, and Carson Hicks

    A Two-Generation Human Capital Approach to Anti-poverty Policy

    Teresa Eckrich Sommer, Terri Sabol, Elise Chor, William Schneider, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Mario Small, Christopher King, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa

    Could We Level the Playing Field? Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives, Nonmarital Fertility, and Poverty in the United States

    Lawrence Wu and Nicholas Mark

    Assessing the Potential Impacts of Innovative New Policy Proposals on Poverty in the United States

    Christopher Wimer, Sophie Collyer, and Sara Kimberlin

  • Individual Author: Lynch, Mathew; Astone, Nan Marie ; Collazos, Juan; Lipman, Micaela; Esthappan, Sino
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report evaluates the New York City-based Arches Transformative Mentoring program, finding that participation in the program reduces one-year felony reconviction by over two-thirds, and reduces two-year felony reconviction by over half, with especially profound impacts for the youngest program participants. The program's evidence-based curriculum is completed over a 6-12-month period and delivered in a group setting by "credible messengers," direct service professionals with backgrounds similar to the populations they serve. The evaluation recommends continuing and even growing the Arches program by tailoring the curriculum to align with participant experiences, providing more mentor training, offering opportunities for full-time employment, and expanding the program's length, alumni engagement, and age range. (Author abstract) 

    This report evaluates the New York City-based Arches Transformative Mentoring program, finding that participation in the program reduces one-year felony reconviction by over two-thirds, and reduces two-year felony reconviction by over half, with especially profound impacts for the youngest program participants. The program's evidence-based curriculum is completed over a 6-12-month period and delivered in a group setting by "credible messengers," direct service professionals with backgrounds similar to the populations they serve. The evaluation recommends continuing and even growing the Arches program by tailoring the curriculum to align with participant experiences, providing more mentor training, offering opportunities for full-time employment, and expanding the program's length, alumni engagement, and age range. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Copson, Elizabeth; Gardiner, Karen; Kitrosser, Daniel
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Carreras en Salud (Careers in Health) program, operated by Instituto del Progreso Latino, in Chicago, Illinois. The Carreras en Salud program is one promising effort aimed at helping low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. A distinctive feature of this program is its focus on training for low-income Latinos for employment in healthcare occupations, primarily Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). It is among nine career pathways programs being evaluated in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Carreras en Salud program consists of five elements: (1) a structured healthcare training pathway, starting at low skill levels; (2) contextualized and accelerated basic skills and ESL instruction; (3) academic advising and non-academic supports; (4) financial assistance; and (5) employment services. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that the Carreras en Salud program increased hours of occupational training and basic skills instruction received and the attainment of education credentials within an 18-month follow-up period. The program also increased employment in the healthcare field and resulted in a reduction of participants reporting financial hardship. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into gains in employment and earnings. (Author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Werner, Alan; Koralek, Robin; Locke, Gretchen; Loprest, Pamela; Eyster, Lauren
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    The Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) Program is designed to deliver high-quality training in the health professions to eligible individuals. A National Evaluation of 27 grants awarded in 2015 as part of the second round of HPOG grants (HPOG 2.0) is currently underway. The National Evaluation will include a Descriptive Evaluation of the implementation, outcomes, and local service delivery systems of the grants as well as an Impact Evaluation of the grants’ impacts on participants and the HPOG Program’s costs and benefits.

    This report presents a research design plan for the Descriptive Evaluation, which includes three related studies:(i) the Implementation Study, (ii) the Outcome Study, and (iii) the Systems Study. Each of these studies makes important independent contributions to the National Evaluation:

    • The Implementation Study will describe HPOG 2.0 Program design and implementation, including Program context, administration, costs, education and support services, and employment assistance services.
    • The Outcome Study will describe HPOG 2.0...

    The Health Profession Opportunity Grants (HPOG) Program is designed to deliver high-quality training in the health professions to eligible individuals. A National Evaluation of 27 grants awarded in 2015 as part of the second round of HPOG grants (HPOG 2.0) is currently underway. The National Evaluation will include a Descriptive Evaluation of the implementation, outcomes, and local service delivery systems of the grants as well as an Impact Evaluation of the grants’ impacts on participants and the HPOG Program’s costs and benefits.

    This report presents a research design plan for the Descriptive Evaluation, which includes three related studies:(i) the Implementation Study, (ii) the Outcome Study, and (iii) the Systems Study. Each of these studies makes important independent contributions to the National Evaluation:

    • The Implementation Study will describe HPOG 2.0 Program design and implementation, including Program context, administration, costs, education and support services, and employment assistance services.
    • The Outcome Study will describe HPOG 2.0 participant characteristics, program experiences, and educational and employment outcomes.
    • The Systems Study will describe how local service delivery systems (i.e., community resources, funding availability, economic conditions, and policies) may have influenced HPOG program design and implementation and how HPOG implementation may have influenced these local systems. (Author abstract) 

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