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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kainz, Kirsten
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment...

    Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment studies and local partnerships to determine effective uses of Title I monies. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Anna D.; Finch, Jenna E.; Phillips, Deborah A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Publicly funded center-based preschool programs were designed to enhance low-income children’s early cognitive and social-emotional skills in preparation for kindergarten. In the U.S., the federal Head Start program and state-funded public school–based pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs are the two primary center-based settings in which low-income children experience publicly funded preschool. Although evidence suggests that these programs generally promote cognitive and social-emotional skills for low-income children overall, whether the benefits of program participation vary for low-income children with difficult temperaments is unexplored. Difficult temperament status is a source of vulnerability that connotes increased risk for poor early school outcomes—risks that may be ameliorated by public preschool programs known to promote kindergarten readiness among other vulnerable populations. Using a nationally representative sample of low-income children (N ≈ 3,000) drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study tests whether associations...

    Publicly funded center-based preschool programs were designed to enhance low-income children’s early cognitive and social-emotional skills in preparation for kindergarten. In the U.S., the federal Head Start program and state-funded public school–based pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs are the two primary center-based settings in which low-income children experience publicly funded preschool. Although evidence suggests that these programs generally promote cognitive and social-emotional skills for low-income children overall, whether the benefits of program participation vary for low-income children with difficult temperaments is unexplored. Difficult temperament status is a source of vulnerability that connotes increased risk for poor early school outcomes—risks that may be ameliorated by public preschool programs known to promote kindergarten readiness among other vulnerable populations. Using a nationally representative sample of low-income children (N ≈ 3,000) drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study tests whether associations between public preschool participation and children’s cognitive and social-emotional skills in kindergarten are moderated by difficult temperament status. We focus on Head Start and public school–based pre-k, comparing both with parental care and with each other. Results provide weak evidence that public preschool’s benefits on children’s cognitive and social-emotional skills in kindergarten are moderated by child temperament. School-based pre-k is significantly associated with better reading skills relative to parental care only for children with difficult temperaments. Additionally, for children with difficult temperaments, Head Start is significantly associated with better approaches to learning relative to parental care, and with reduced externalizing behavior problems relative to school-based pre-k. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Schilling, Samantha ; Jamison, Shaundreal ; Wood, Charles ; Perrin, Eliana; Jansen Austin, Coby ; Sheridan, Juliet; Young, Allison ; Burchinal, Margaret ; Flower, Kori B.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    In 2014, Family Success Alliance (FSA) was formed as a place-based initiative to build a pipeline of programs to reduce the impact of poverty on outcomes for children living in Orange County, North Carolina. In this study, FSA parents’ perception of child health, parent and child adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and resilience were obtained by parent interview. Receipt of recommended health services were abstracted from primary care medical records of FSA children. Correlation coefficients investigated relationships among health, ACEs, and resilience. Among 87 parent-child dyads, 65% were Spanish speaking. At least 1 of the 7 ACEs measured was reported in 37% of children and 70% of parents. Parent perceptions of child health were lower than national averages. Routine preventive services included the following: autism screening at 18 months (15%) and 24 months (31%); ≥4 fluoride varnish applications (10%); lead screening (66%); and receipt of immunizations (94%). Parent perception of child health was moderately correlated with resilience. (Author abstract)

    In 2014, Family Success Alliance (FSA) was formed as a place-based initiative to build a pipeline of programs to reduce the impact of poverty on outcomes for children living in Orange County, North Carolina. In this study, FSA parents’ perception of child health, parent and child adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and resilience were obtained by parent interview. Receipt of recommended health services were abstracted from primary care medical records of FSA children. Correlation coefficients investigated relationships among health, ACEs, and resilience. Among 87 parent-child dyads, 65% were Spanish speaking. At least 1 of the 7 ACEs measured was reported in 37% of children and 70% of parents. Parent perceptions of child health were lower than national averages. Routine preventive services included the following: autism screening at 18 months (15%) and 24 months (31%); ≥4 fluoride varnish applications (10%); lead screening (66%); and receipt of immunizations (94%). Parent perception of child health was moderately correlated with resilience. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Poor children begin school with fewer academic skills than their nonpoor peers, and these disparities translate into lower achievement, educational attainment, and economic stability in adulthood. Child poverty research traditionally focuses on urban or rural poor, but a shifting spatial orientation of poverty necessitates a richer examination of how urbanicity intersects with economic disadvantage. Combining geospatial administrative data with longitudinal survey data on poor children from kindergarten through second grade (N ≈ 2,950), this project explored how differences in community-level resources and stressors across urbanicity explain variation in achievement. Resources and stressors increased in more urbanized communities and were associated with academic achievement. Both mediated differences in poor children’s achievement. Mediation was both direct and indirect, operating through cognitive stimulation and parental warmth. (Author abstract)

    Poor children begin school with fewer academic skills than their nonpoor peers, and these disparities translate into lower achievement, educational attainment, and economic stability in adulthood. Child poverty research traditionally focuses on urban or rural poor, but a shifting spatial orientation of poverty necessitates a richer examination of how urbanicity intersects with economic disadvantage. Combining geospatial administrative data with longitudinal survey data on poor children from kindergarten through second grade (N ≈ 2,950), this project explored how differences in community-level resources and stressors across urbanicity explain variation in achievement. Resources and stressors increased in more urbanized communities and were associated with academic achievement. Both mediated differences in poor children’s achievement. Mediation was both direct and indirect, operating through cognitive stimulation and parental warmth. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Coley, Rebekah Levine; Spielvogel, Bryn; Kull, Melissa
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Economic inequality and ensuing economic stratification in educational and community contexts are growing in the United States. Given these patterns, it is essential to understand the implications of economic stratification in early education settings. This paper delineates repercussions of the concentration of poor children in preschool programs using lagged structural equation models estimated in two longitudinal studies following 3396 4-year-old children in 486 primarily publicly-funded preschool classrooms through kindergarten entrance. Concentrated poverty in preschool classrooms was associated with lower language and reading skills in kindergarten in part through children's exposure to less cognitively-skilled peers, with teacher instructional quality not serving as a reliable mediator. These associations did not emerge in relation to children's math skills. Results expand conceptual models of peer effects and inform preschool policies which seek to increase quality and equity and enhance children's learning. (Author abstract)

    Economic inequality and ensuing economic stratification in educational and community contexts are growing in the United States. Given these patterns, it is essential to understand the implications of economic stratification in early education settings. This paper delineates repercussions of the concentration of poor children in preschool programs using lagged structural equation models estimated in two longitudinal studies following 3396 4-year-old children in 486 primarily publicly-funded preschool classrooms through kindergarten entrance. Concentrated poverty in preschool classrooms was associated with lower language and reading skills in kindergarten in part through children's exposure to less cognitively-skilled peers, with teacher instructional quality not serving as a reliable mediator. These associations did not emerge in relation to children's math skills. Results expand conceptual models of peer effects and inform preschool policies which seek to increase quality and equity and enhance children's learning. (Author abstract)

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