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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kainz, Kirsten
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment...

    Since 1965 the purpose of Title I of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act has been to improve the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged students and reduce achievement gaps. This paper presents analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of African American and Latinx kindergartners who attended public schools operating school-wide Title I programs in the 2010–11 school year. The purpose of analysis was to examine the associations between Title I programming and achievement gaps. The results indicated that African American students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in reading in schools that used Title I for reduced class size. African American and Latinx students in high poverty, high minority schools made greater gains in mathematics in schools that used Title I for professional development. Findings were scrutinized via propensity score weighting, which revealed the tangled nature of school context, child and family characteristics, and student learning. Suggestions for future research include random assignment studies and local partnerships to determine effective uses of Title I monies. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Child Trends
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    After reaching 23 percent in 1993—the highest rate since 1964—child poverty (the percentage of children in families with income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level) fell to 16 percent in 2000. The rate then rose slowly through 2004, to 18 percent. Soon after, the child poverty rate began to reflect the most recent economic downturn. From 2006 to 2010, child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from 2010 to 2017, to 17 percent. A small uptick in 2014, to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting. (Author introduction)

     

    After reaching 23 percent in 1993—the highest rate since 1964—child poverty (the percentage of children in families with income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level) fell to 16 percent in 2000. The rate then rose slowly through 2004, to 18 percent. Soon after, the child poverty rate began to reflect the most recent economic downturn. From 2006 to 2010, child poverty increased from 17 to 22 percent of all children under age 18, before declining from 2010 to 2017, to 17 percent. A small uptick in 2014, to 21 percent, may be attributed to a change in income reporting. (Author introduction)

     

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Anna D.; Finch, Jenna E.; Phillips, Deborah A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Publicly funded center-based preschool programs were designed to enhance low-income children’s early cognitive and social-emotional skills in preparation for kindergarten. In the U.S., the federal Head Start program and state-funded public school–based pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs are the two primary center-based settings in which low-income children experience publicly funded preschool. Although evidence suggests that these programs generally promote cognitive and social-emotional skills for low-income children overall, whether the benefits of program participation vary for low-income children with difficult temperaments is unexplored. Difficult temperament status is a source of vulnerability that connotes increased risk for poor early school outcomes—risks that may be ameliorated by public preschool programs known to promote kindergarten readiness among other vulnerable populations. Using a nationally representative sample of low-income children (N ≈ 3,000) drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study tests whether associations...

    Publicly funded center-based preschool programs were designed to enhance low-income children’s early cognitive and social-emotional skills in preparation for kindergarten. In the U.S., the federal Head Start program and state-funded public school–based pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs are the two primary center-based settings in which low-income children experience publicly funded preschool. Although evidence suggests that these programs generally promote cognitive and social-emotional skills for low-income children overall, whether the benefits of program participation vary for low-income children with difficult temperaments is unexplored. Difficult temperament status is a source of vulnerability that connotes increased risk for poor early school outcomes—risks that may be ameliorated by public preschool programs known to promote kindergarten readiness among other vulnerable populations. Using a nationally representative sample of low-income children (N ≈ 3,000) drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study tests whether associations between public preschool participation and children’s cognitive and social-emotional skills in kindergarten are moderated by difficult temperament status. We focus on Head Start and public school–based pre-k, comparing both with parental care and with each other. Results provide weak evidence that public preschool’s benefits on children’s cognitive and social-emotional skills in kindergarten are moderated by child temperament. School-based pre-k is significantly associated with better reading skills relative to parental care only for children with difficult temperaments. Additionally, for children with difficult temperaments, Head Start is significantly associated with better approaches to learning relative to parental care, and with reduced externalizing behavior problems relative to school-based pre-k. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Forry, N.; Madill, R.; Shuey, E.; Halle, T; Ugarte, G; Borton, J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2019

    These snapshots describe U.S. households’ costs for, and usage of, ECE in 2012, looking at differences by age of child, household income, and community urbanicity.

    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Child Age
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Household Income
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Community Urbanicity

    These snapshots use data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE), a nationally representative study of U.S. households and early care and education providers conducted in 2012. (Author abstract)

     

    These snapshots describe U.S. households’ costs for, and usage of, ECE in 2012, looking at differences by age of child, household income, and community urbanicity.

    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Child Age
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Household Income
    • How Much Did Households in the United States Pay for Child Care in 2012? — An Examination of Differences by Community Urbanicity

    These snapshots use data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE), a nationally representative study of U.S. households and early care and education providers conducted in 2012. (Author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2019

    Poor children begin school with fewer academic skills than their nonpoor peers, and these disparities translate into lower achievement, educational attainment, and economic stability in adulthood. Child poverty research traditionally focuses on urban or rural poor, but a shifting spatial orientation of poverty necessitates a richer examination of how urbanicity intersects with economic disadvantage. Combining geospatial administrative data with longitudinal survey data on poor children from kindergarten through second grade (N ≈ 2,950), this project explored how differences in community-level resources and stressors across urbanicity explain variation in achievement. Resources and stressors increased in more urbanized communities and were associated with academic achievement. Both mediated differences in poor children’s achievement. Mediation was both direct and indirect, operating through cognitive stimulation and parental warmth. (Author abstract)

    Poor children begin school with fewer academic skills than their nonpoor peers, and these disparities translate into lower achievement, educational attainment, and economic stability in adulthood. Child poverty research traditionally focuses on urban or rural poor, but a shifting spatial orientation of poverty necessitates a richer examination of how urbanicity intersects with economic disadvantage. Combining geospatial administrative data with longitudinal survey data on poor children from kindergarten through second grade (N ≈ 2,950), this project explored how differences in community-level resources and stressors across urbanicity explain variation in achievement. Resources and stressors increased in more urbanized communities and were associated with academic achievement. Both mediated differences in poor children’s achievement. Mediation was both direct and indirect, operating through cognitive stimulation and parental warmth. (Author abstract)

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