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  • Individual Author: O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Leschke, Janine; Ortlieb, Renate; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin; Villa, Paola
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2019

    Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. 

    The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3½-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; http://www.style-research.eu) coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under...

    Exacerbated by the Great Recession, youth transitions to employment and adulthood have become increasingly protracted, precarious, and differentiated by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth Labor in Transition examines young people's integration into employment, alongside the decisions and consequences of migrating to find work and later returning home. The authors identify key policy challenges for the future related to NEETS, overeducation, self-employment, and ethnic differences in outcomes. This illustrates the need to encompass a wider understanding of youth employment and job insecurity by including an analysis of economic production and how it relates to social reproduction of labor if policy intervention is to be effective. 

    The mapping and extensive analysis in this book are the result of a 3½-year, European Union-funded research project (Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe, or STYLE; http://www.style-research.eu) coordinated by Jacqueline O'Reilly. With an overall budget of just under 5 million euros and involving 25 research partners; an international advisory network and local advisory boards of employers, unions, and policymakers; and non-governmental organizations from more than 20 European countries, STYLE is one of the largest European Commission-funded research projects to exist on this topic. Consequently, this book will appeal to an array of audiences, including academic and policy researchers in sociology, political science, economics, management studies, and more particular labor market and social policy; policy communities; and bachelor's- and master's-level students in courses on European studies or any of the aforementioned subject areas. (Author description)

    Contents: 
     
    Introduction: Comparing youth transitions in Europe: Joblessness, insecurity, institutions, and inequality 
    Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa
     
    PART I. COMPARING PROBLEMATIC YOUTH TRANSITIONS TO WORK (pages 31-192)
     
    Where do young people work?
    Raffaele Grotti, Helen Russell, and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    How does the performance of school-to-work transition regimes vary in the European Union?
    Kari P. Hadjivassiliou, Arianna Tassinari, Werner Eichhorst, and Florian Wozny
     
    Stressed economies, distressed policies, and distraught young people: European policies and outcomes from a youth perspective 
    Mark Smith, Janine Leschke, Helen Russell, and Paola Villa
     
    Labor market flexibility and income security: Changes for European youth during the Great Recession
    Janine Leschke and Mairéad Finn
     
    Policy transfer and innovation for building resilient bridges to the youth labor market 
    Maria Petmesidou and María González Menéndez
     
    PART II. TRANSITIONS AROUND WORK AND THE FAMILY (pages 193-386)
     
    How do youth labor flows differ from those of older workers? 
    Vladislav Flek, Martin Hála, and Martina Mysíková
     
    How can young people’s employment quality be assessed dynamically?
    Gabriella Berloffa, Eleonora Matteazzi, Gabriele Mazzolini, Alina Sandor, and Paola Villa
     
    Youth transitions and job quality: How long should they wait and what difference does the family make? 
    Marianna Filandri, Tiziana Nazio, and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    The worklessness legacy: Do working mothers make a difference? 
    Gabriella Berloffa, Eleonora Matteazzi, and Paola Villa
     
    Stuck in the parental nest? The effect of the economic crisis on young Europeans’ living arrangements 
    Fernanda Mazzotta and Lavinia Parisi
     
    Income sharing and spending decisions of young people living with their parents 
    Márton Medgyesi and Ildikó Nagy
     
    PART III. TRANSITIONS ACROSS EUROPE (pages 387-500)
     
    What happens to young people who move to another country to find work? 
    Mehtap Akguc and Miroslav Beblavý
     
    Europe’s promise for jobs? Labor market integration of young European Union migrant citizens in Germany and the United Kingdom 
    Thees F. Spreckelsen, Janine Leschke, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser
     
    How do labor market intermediaries help young Eastern Europeans find work? 
    Renate Ortlieb and Silvana Weiss
     
    What are the employment prospects for young Estonian and Slovak return migrants? 
    Jaan Masso, Lucia Mýtna Kureková, Maryna Tverdostup, and Zuzana Zilincikova
     
    PART IV. CHALLENGING FUTURES FOR YOUTH (pages 501-706)
     
    Origins and future of the concept of NEETs in the European policy agenda 
    Massimiliano Mascherini
     
    Youth overeducation in Europe: Is there scope for a common policy approach? 
    Seamus McGuinness, Adele Bergin, and Adele Whelan
     
    Do scarring effects vary by ethnicity and gender? 
    Carolina V. Zuccotti and Jacqueline O’Reilly
     
    Do business start-ups create high-quality jobs for young people? 
    Renate Ortlieb, Maura Sheehan, and Jaan Masso
     
    Are the work values of the younger generations changing? 
    Gábor Hajdu and Endre Sik
     
    How can trade unions in Europe connect with young workers? 
    Kurt Vandaele
     
    Integrating perspectives on youth labor in transition: Economic production, social reproduction, and policy learning 
    Jacqueline O’Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa

     

  • Individual Author: Berger, Lawrence M. (ed.); Cancian, Maria (ed.); Magnuson, Katherine (ed.)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2018

    The 2016 presidential election has brought to the fore proposals to fundamentally restructure the U.S. anti-poverty safety net. Even though much of the current debate centers on shrinking or eliminating federal programs, we believe it is necessary and useful to explore alternatives that represent new approaches and significant innovations to existing policy and programs. This double issue of RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences builds on and extends the scholarly conversation on the state of current U.S. anti-poverty policy by high-lighting a collection of related innovative and specific policy proposals for the United States. Well before the election, the authors of the articles in this volume were explicitly tasked with proposing substantially new policies solidly grounded in social science evidence that have the potential to transform anti-poverty policy. Assuming the goal to be reducing poverty among the U.S. population, we asked what new ideas should be seriously considered. The authors responded with carefully crafted proposals that tackle poverty...

    The 2016 presidential election has brought to the fore proposals to fundamentally restructure the U.S. anti-poverty safety net. Even though much of the current debate centers on shrinking or eliminating federal programs, we believe it is necessary and useful to explore alternatives that represent new approaches and significant innovations to existing policy and programs. This double issue of RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences builds on and extends the scholarly conversation on the state of current U.S. anti-poverty policy by high-lighting a collection of related innovative and specific policy proposals for the United States. Well before the election, the authors of the articles in this volume were explicitly tasked with proposing substantially new policies solidly grounded in social science evidence that have the potential to transform anti-poverty policy. Assuming the goal to be reducing poverty among the U.S. population, we asked what new ideas should be seriously considered. The authors responded with carefully crafted proposals that tackle poverty from a variety of perspectives. Some of these proposals are more of a departure from existing policies than others, some borrow from other countries or revive old ideas, some are narrow in focus and others much broader, but all seek to move anti-poverty efforts into new territory. (Author abstract) 

    Contents:

    Introduction

    Anti-Poverty Policy Innovations: New Proposals for Addressing Poverty in the United States

    Lawrence Berger, Maria Cancian, and Katherine Magnuson

    Part I. Employment, Education, and Family Planning

    Coupling a Federal Minimum Wage Hike with Public Investments to Make Work Pay and Reduce Poverty

    Jennifer Romich and Heather Hill

    A Path to Ending Poverty by Way of Ending Unemployment: A Federal Job Guarantee

    Mark Paul, William Darity Jr., Darrick Hamilton, and Khaing Zaw

    Working to Reduce Poverty: A National Subsidized Employment Proposal

    Indivar Dutta-Gupta, Kali Grant, Julie Kerksick, Dan Bloom, and Ajay Chaudry 

    A "Race to the Top" in Public Higher Education to Improve Education and Employment Among the Poor

    Harry Holzer

    Postsecondary Pathways out of Poverty: City University of New York Accelerated Study in Associate Programs and the Case for National Policy

    Diana Strumbos, Donna Linderman, and Carson Hicks

    A Two-Generation Human Capital Approach to Anti-poverty Policy

    Teresa Eckrich Sommer, Terri Sabol, Elise Chor, William Schneider, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Mario Small, Christopher King, and Hirokazu Yoshikawa

    Could We Level the Playing Field? Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives, Nonmarital Fertility, and Poverty in the United States

    Lawrence Wu and Nicholas Mark

    Assessing the Potential Impacts of Innovative New Policy Proposals on Poverty in the United States

    Christopher Wimer, Sophie Collyer, and Sara Kimberlin

  • Individual Author: Seefeldt, Kristin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2018

    This brief summarizes findings from in-depth interviews with 39 members of the control group in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study. PACE is a rigorous evaluation of nine career pathways programs. PACE used an experimental design in which eligible program applicants were randomly assigned to a treatment group that could access the program under study or a control group that could not. In order to accurately interpret impact findings, it is important that evaluators understand the experiences of control group members. (Author abstract)   

    This brief summarizes findings from in-depth interviews with 39 members of the control group in the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study. PACE is a rigorous evaluation of nine career pathways programs. PACE used an experimental design in which eligible program applicants were randomly assigned to a treatment group that could access the program under study or a control group that could not. In order to accurately interpret impact findings, it is important that evaluators understand the experiences of control group members. (Author abstract)   

  • Individual Author: Arkin, Monica
    Reference Type: SSRC Products
    Year: 2018

    Posted by Monica Arkin, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Case workers and other practitioners in the welfare system benefit from keeping abreast of new research and clinical approaches when working with clients. One such method that has been around for decades but has only recently been popularized in the field of self-sufficiency is motivational interviewing. Developed in the 1980s by clinical psychologists William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick, motivational interviewing was created as an approach to behavioral change particularly for individuals dealing with substance use disorders. Compared with the more traditional dynamic of counselor-patient relationships, which commonly features an expert counselor educating or persuading a less-informed client, motivational interviewing...

    Posted by Monica Arkin, Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse Staff

    Case workers and other practitioners in the welfare system benefit from keeping abreast of new research and clinical approaches when working with clients. One such method that has been around for decades but has only recently been popularized in the field of self-sufficiency is motivational interviewing. Developed in the 1980s by clinical psychologists William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick, motivational interviewing was created as an approach to behavioral change particularly for individuals dealing with substance use disorders. Compared with the more traditional dynamic of counselor-patient relationships, which commonly features an expert counselor educating or persuading a less-informed client, motivational interviewing occurs in the context of a partnership where client autonomy is the foundation. Together, the counselor and client engage in a collaborative conversation about identifying problems and solutions, particularly by focusing on barriers to change that are preventing progress toward the client’s goals. Rather than imposing change externally, motivational interviewing seeks to elicit and strengthen an individual’s intrinsic motivation for change.

    Since its initial development in substance abuse treatment spaces, motivational interviewing has proven to be an effective approach for facilitating productive change in various client contexts. With respect to self-sufficiency, studies of TANF-eligible client outcomes have shown that motivational interviewing is a valuable addition to case worker interventions. For example, a six-month follow-up evaluation of 322 randomly selected TANF-eligible clients participating in Kentucky’s Targeted Assessment Program (TAP), which combines motivational interviewing, holistic assessment and strengths-based case management, found medium-to-strong decreases in self-reported barriers to self-sufficiency. These included barriers related to physical health (at six-month follow-up the percentage of participants who had seen a doctor in the previous 12 months decreased, as did the percentage of participants who wanted to see a doctor but reported being unable to), mental health (feeling badly about oneself, having thoughts of self-harm, and feeling worried or anxious), substance use, and intimate partner violence. Additionally, TAP participants reported lower work difficulty and higher employment rates at the time of follow-up.

    Another study found a connection between motivational interviewing and veterans’ self-sufficiency. Eighty-four veterans who had psychiatric disorders and had applied for service-connected compensation were assigned to either a control condition, where they received an orientation to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system and services, or an experimental condition, where they received four 50-minute sessions of individual counseling that followed a motivational interviewing framework. At a six-month follow up, veterans in the experimental group reported significantly more days of paid employment compared with participants in the control group. This suggests that motivational interviewing may reduce barriers to employment that are associated with disability payments for psychiatric disorders.

    The benefits of motivational interviewing serve the client as well as the practitioner. A qualitative study in Alamance County, North Carolina gathered the perceptions of case workers within the child welfare system that were trained in motivational interviewing. When initial training was supplemented with coaching from clinical coaches, case workers reported that motivational interviewing “helped them deal with difficult issues they encountered, changed-long held perspectives, and provided a new approach to working with families.”

    The SSRC Library contains numerous reports and stakeholder resources about motivational interviewing, including:

    For more resources, check out the SSRC Library and subscribe to the SSRC or follow us on Twitter to receive updates about upcoming events, new library materials on self-sufficiency topics of interest to you and more.

     

  • Individual Author: Waters, Damon; Chester, Hilary; Gaffney, Angela; Hetling, Andrea
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2018

    This session discussed how TANF and employment services programs can serve special populations. Presenters shared strategies that state and local systems use to provide financial support and related employment services to newly arrived refugees, the feasibility and benefits of providing enhanced employment services to foreign trafficking victims, and a risk assessment tool for domestic violence survivors applying for services and waivers under the Family Violence Options. Damon Waters (Administration for Children and Families) moderated this session.

     

    This session discussed how TANF and employment services programs can serve special populations. Presenters shared strategies that state and local systems use to provide financial support and related employment services to newly arrived refugees, the feasibility and benefits of providing enhanced employment services to foreign trafficking victims, and a risk assessment tool for domestic violence survivors applying for services and waivers under the Family Violence Options. Damon Waters (Administration for Children and Families) moderated this session.

     

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