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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Williams, Julie
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2017

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the grant programs and evaluation overview, the programs evaluated, the key impact findings, and the conclusions from the Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2017 NAWRS workshop summarizes the grant programs and evaluation overview, the programs evaluated, the key impact findings, and the conclusions from the Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation.

  • Individual Author: Bloom, Dan
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    Launched in 2010, the Subsidized and Transitional Employment Demonstration evaluation from the Department of Health and Human Services and the Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration evaluation from the Department of Labor are studying 13 subsidized employment programs in 10 locations across the United States. The programs encompass three broad categories: Modified Transitional Jobs Models, Wage Subsidy Models, and Hybrid Models.

    The goal of these complementary large-scale projects is to evaluate the effectiveness of the latest generation of subsidized employment models that aim to improve participants’ long-term success in the labor market. This report introduces the projects and presents some preliminary findings about implementation of the demonstrations. (author abstract)

    Launched in 2010, the Subsidized and Transitional Employment Demonstration evaluation from the Department of Health and Human Services and the Enhanced Transitional Jobs Demonstration evaluation from the Department of Labor are studying 13 subsidized employment programs in 10 locations across the United States. The programs encompass three broad categories: Modified Transitional Jobs Models, Wage Subsidy Models, and Hybrid Models.

    The goal of these complementary large-scale projects is to evaluate the effectiveness of the latest generation of subsidized employment models that aim to improve participants’ long-term success in the labor market. This report introduces the projects and presents some preliminary findings about implementation of the demonstrations. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Butler, David; Alson, Julianna; Bloom, Dan; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron; Hsueh, JoAnn; Jacobs, Erin; Kim, Sue; McRoberts, Reanin; Redcross, Cindy
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In the context of a public safety net focused on limiting dependency and encouraging participation in the labor market, policymakers and researchers are especially interested in individuals who face obstacles to finding and keeping jobs. The Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ (HtE) Demonstration and Evaluation Project was a 10-year study that evaluated innovative strategies aimed at improving employment and other outcomes for groups who face serious barriers to employment. The project was sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, with additional funding from the U.S. Department of Labor. This report describes the HtE programs and summarizes the final results for each program. Additionally, it presents information for three sites from the ACF-sponsored Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project where hard-to-employ populations were also targeted.

    Three of the eight models that are described here led to increases in employment. Two of the three...

    In the context of a public safety net focused on limiting dependency and encouraging participation in the labor market, policymakers and researchers are especially interested in individuals who face obstacles to finding and keeping jobs. The Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ (HtE) Demonstration and Evaluation Project was a 10-year study that evaluated innovative strategies aimed at improving employment and other outcomes for groups who face serious barriers to employment. The project was sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, with additional funding from the U.S. Department of Labor. This report describes the HtE programs and summarizes the final results for each program. Additionally, it presents information for three sites from the ACF-sponsored Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project where hard-to-employ populations were also targeted.

    Three of the eight models that are described here led to increases in employment. Two of the three — large-scale programs that provided temporary, subsidized "transitional" jobs to facilitate entry into the workforce for long-term welfare recipients in one program and for ex-prisoners in the other — produced only short-term gains in employment, driven mainly by the transitional jobs themselves. The third one — a welfare-to-work program that provided unpaid work experience, job placement, and education services to recipients with health conditions — had longer-term gains, increasing employment and reducing the amount of cash assistance received over four years. Promising findings were also observed in other sites. An early-childhood development program that was combined with services to boost parents’ self-sufficiency increased employment and earnings for a subgroup of the study participants and increased the use of high-quality child care; the program for ex-prisoners mentioned above decreased recidivism; and an intervention for low-income parents with depression produced short-term increases in the use of in-person treatment. But other programs — case management services for low-income substance abusers and two employment strategies for welfare recipients — revealed no observed impacts.

    While these results are mixed, some directions for future research on the hard-to-employ emerged:

    • The findings from the evaluations of transitional jobs programs have influenced the design of two new federal subsidized employment initiatives, which are seeking to test approaches that may achieve longer-lasting effects.
    • The HtE evaluation illustrates some key challenges that early childhood education programs may face when adding self-sufficiency services for parents, and provides important lessons for implementation that can guide future two-generational programs for low-income parents and their young children.
    • Results from the HtE evaluation suggest future strategies for enhancing and adapting an intervention to help parents with depression that may benefit low-income populations.
    • Evidence from the HtE evaluation of employment strategies for welfare recipients along with other research indicates that combining work-focused strategies with treatment or services may be more promising than using either strategy alone, especially for people with disabilities and behavioral health problems.

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: LeBlanc, Allen; Miller, Cynthia; Martinson, Karin; Azurdia, Gilda
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    Despite advances in the development of programs to help welfare recipients find jobs, a significant portion of the welfare caseload remains on the rolls for long periods without working. This report evaluates the effectiveness of a program in Minnesota, the Tier 2 program, designed to assist those recipients. It was evaluated as part of the employment Retention and Advancement project, which is testing 15 programs nationwide. The project is being conducted by MDRC, under contract to the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, with additional funding from the U.S. Department of Labor. The Tier 2 program operated in Hennepin County, which includes the city of Minneapolis, and was built on the services provided by the county’s preexisting welfare-to-work program, the Tier 1 pro-gram. Tier 2 differed from Tier 1 as follows: (1) case managers worked with smaller caseloads; (2) clients received in-depth assessments to uncover problems that affected them and their families; and (3) it placed greater emphasis on referring individuals...

    Despite advances in the development of programs to help welfare recipients find jobs, a significant portion of the welfare caseload remains on the rolls for long periods without working. This report evaluates the effectiveness of a program in Minnesota, the Tier 2 program, designed to assist those recipients. It was evaluated as part of the employment Retention and Advancement project, which is testing 15 programs nationwide. The project is being conducted by MDRC, under contract to the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, with additional funding from the U.S. Department of Labor. The Tier 2 program operated in Hennepin County, which includes the city of Minneapolis, and was built on the services provided by the county’s preexisting welfare-to-work program, the Tier 1 pro-gram. Tier 2 differed from Tier 1 as follows: (1) case managers worked with smaller caseloads; (2) clients received in-depth assessments to uncover problems that affected them and their families; and (3) it placed greater emphasis on referring individuals to services to address barriers to employment and placing recipients who could not find work in supported employment positions (whereby participants worked for a wage in jobs supervised by program staff). The Tier 2 program was evaluated starting in 2002 using a random assignment research design, whereby eligible individuals were assigned either to a program group, whose members were as-signed to Tier 2, or to a control group, whose members remained in Tier 1. The Tier 2 program’s effects were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over time. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Bos, Johannes M.; Hsueh, JoAnn
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    Data from the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the New Hope demonstration were used to determine whether experimental effects of antipoverty policies differ by parents' risk for nonemployment. Using propensity score analysis, increases in employment and income were largest in the harder-to-employ halves of both samples. However, only children in the moderately hard-to-employ quartiles (50th to 75th percentile) consistently showed improvements in school and behavior outcomes. The very-hardest-to-employ 25% experienced decreases in school engagement, and increases in aggressive behaviors, despite substantial increases in parental employment and income. In this group, increases in maternal depression, reductions in regular family routines, and smaller increases in job stability and center-based child care occurred. These factors may have counteracted the potential benefits of increased income on children. (author abstract)

    Data from the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the New Hope demonstration were used to determine whether experimental effects of antipoverty policies differ by parents' risk for nonemployment. Using propensity score analysis, increases in employment and income were largest in the harder-to-employ halves of both samples. However, only children in the moderately hard-to-employ quartiles (50th to 75th percentile) consistently showed improvements in school and behavior outcomes. The very-hardest-to-employ 25% experienced decreases in school engagement, and increases in aggressive behaviors, despite substantial increases in parental employment and income. In this group, increases in maternal depression, reductions in regular family routines, and smaller increases in job stability and center-based child care occurred. These factors may have counteracted the potential benefits of increased income on children. (author abstract)

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