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  • Individual Author: Bailey, Martha J. (editor); DiPrete, Thomas A. (editor)
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2016

    Contents

    Five Decades of Remarkable but Slowing Change in U.S. Women’s Economic and Social Status and Political Participation 1

    Martha J. Bailey and Thomas A. DiPrete

    Part I. Working Hours, Opting Out, and the Gender Wage Gap

    The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012 34

    Tanya Byker

    Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium 71

    Kim A. Weeden, Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca

    Part II. Motherhood, Work, and the Family Pay Gap

    The Family Gap in Pay: New Evidence for 1967 to 2013 104

    Ipshita Pal and Jane Waldfogel

    Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations 128

    Claudia Buchmann and Anne McDaniel

    Part III. Women’s Work in Nontraditionally Female Occupations and STEM Fields

    Gender Differences in the Early Career Outcomes of College Graduates...

    Contents

    Five Decades of Remarkable but Slowing Change in U.S. Women’s Economic and Social Status and Political Participation 1

    Martha J. Bailey and Thomas A. DiPrete

    Part I. Working Hours, Opting Out, and the Gender Wage Gap

    The Opt-Out Continuation: Education, Work, and Motherhood from 1984 to 2012 34

    Tanya Byker

    Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium 71

    Kim A. Weeden, Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca

    Part II. Motherhood, Work, and the Family Pay Gap

    The Family Gap in Pay: New Evidence for 1967 to 2013 104

    Ipshita Pal and Jane Waldfogel

    Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations 128

    Claudia Buchmann and Anne McDaniel

    Part III. Women’s Work in Nontraditionally Female Occupations and STEM Fields

    Gender Differences in the Early Career Outcomes of College Graduates: The Influence of Sex-Type of Degree Field Across Four Cohorts 152

    Kimberlee A. Shauman

    Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter? 194

    Katherine Michelmore and Sharon Sassler

    Part IV. Marriage, Divorce, and Women’s Earnings

    Trends in Relative Earnings and Marital Dissolution: Are Wives Who Outearn Their Husbands Still More Likely to Divorce? 218

    Christine R. Schwartz and Pilar Gonalons-Pons

    Selection and Specialization in the Evolution of Marriage Earnings Gaps 237

    Chinhui Juhn and Kristin McCue

    Part V. Education, Work, and Political Participation

    Advances and Ambivalence: The Consequences of Women’s Educational and Workforce Changes for Women’s Political Participation in the United States, 1952 to 2012 272

    Ashley Jardina and Nancy Burns

     

  • Individual Author: Sawhill, Isabel V.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2014

    Over half of all births to young adults in the United States now occur outside of marriage, and many are unplanned. The result is increased poverty and inequality for children. The left argues for more social support for unmarried parents; the right argues for a return to traditional marriage.

    In Generation Unbound, Isabel V. Sawhill offers a third approach: change “drifters” into “planners.” In a well-written and accessible survey of the impact of family structure on child well-being, Sawhill contrasts “planners,” who are delaying parenthood until after they marry, with “drifters,” who are having unplanned children early and outside of marriage. These two distinct patterns are contributing to an emerging class divide and threatening social mobility in the United States.

    Sawhill draws on insights from the new field of behavioral economics, showing that it is possible, by changing the default, to move from a culture that accepts a high number of unplanned pregnancies to a culture in which adults only have children when they are ready to be a parent. (author abstract...

    Over half of all births to young adults in the United States now occur outside of marriage, and many are unplanned. The result is increased poverty and inequality for children. The left argues for more social support for unmarried parents; the right argues for a return to traditional marriage.

    In Generation Unbound, Isabel V. Sawhill offers a third approach: change “drifters” into “planners.” In a well-written and accessible survey of the impact of family structure on child well-being, Sawhill contrasts “planners,” who are delaying parenthood until after they marry, with “drifters,” who are having unplanned children early and outside of marriage. These two distinct patterns are contributing to an emerging class divide and threatening social mobility in the United States.

    Sawhill draws on insights from the new field of behavioral economics, showing that it is possible, by changing the default, to move from a culture that accepts a high number of unplanned pregnancies to a culture in which adults only have children when they are ready to be a parent. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Edin, Kathryn; Kefalas, Maria
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2011

    Millie Acevedo bore her first child before the age of 16 and dropped out of high school to care for her newborn. Now 27, she is the unmarried mother of three and is raising her kids in one of Philadelphia's poorest neighborhoods. Would she and her children be better off if she had waited to have them and had married their father first? Why do so many poor American youth like Millie continue to have children before they can afford to take care of them?

    Over a span of five years, sociologists Kathryn Edin and Maria Kefalas talked in-depth with 162 low-income single moms like Millie to learn how they think about marriage and family. Promises I Can Keep offers an intimate look at what marriage and motherhood mean to these women and provides the most extensive on-the-ground study to date of why they put children before marriage despite the daunting challenges they know lie ahead. (author abstract)

    Millie Acevedo bore her first child before the age of 16 and dropped out of high school to care for her newborn. Now 27, she is the unmarried mother of three and is raising her kids in one of Philadelphia's poorest neighborhoods. Would she and her children be better off if she had waited to have them and had married their father first? Why do so many poor American youth like Millie continue to have children before they can afford to take care of them?

    Over a span of five years, sociologists Kathryn Edin and Maria Kefalas talked in-depth with 162 low-income single moms like Millie to learn how they think about marriage and family. Promises I Can Keep offers an intimate look at what marriage and motherhood mean to these women and provides the most extensive on-the-ground study to date of why they put children before marriage despite the daunting challenges they know lie ahead. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Cherlin, Andrew
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2010

    The Marriage-Go-Round illuminates the shifting nature of America's most cherished social institution and explains its striking differences from marriage in other Western countries.

    Andrew J. Cherlin's three decades of study have shown him that marriage in America is a social and political battlefield in a way that it isn’t in other developed countries. Americans marry and divorce more often and have more live-in partners than Europeans, and gay Americans have more interest in legalizing same-sex marriage. The difference comes from Americans’ embrace of two contradictory cultural ideals: marriage, a formal commitment to share one's life with another; and individualism, which emphasizes personal choice and self-development. Religion and law in America reinforce both of these behavioral poles, fueling turmoil in our family life and heated debate in our public life. Cherlin’s incisive diagnosis is an important contribution to the debate and points the way to slowing down the partnership merry-go-round. (author abstract)

    The Marriage-Go-Round illuminates the shifting nature of America's most cherished social institution and explains its striking differences from marriage in other Western countries.

    Andrew J. Cherlin's three decades of study have shown him that marriage in America is a social and political battlefield in a way that it isn’t in other developed countries. Americans marry and divorce more often and have more live-in partners than Europeans, and gay Americans have more interest in legalizing same-sex marriage. The difference comes from Americans’ embrace of two contradictory cultural ideals: marriage, a formal commitment to share one's life with another; and individualism, which emphasizes personal choice and self-development. Religion and law in America reinforce both of these behavioral poles, fueling turmoil in our family life and heated debate in our public life. Cherlin’s incisive diagnosis is an important contribution to the debate and points the way to slowing down the partnership merry-go-round. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sawhill, Isabel V.; Haskins, Ron
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2009

    Americans believe economic opportunity is as fundamental a right as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. More concerned about a level playing field for all, they worry less about the growing income and wealth disparity in our country. Creating an Opportunity Society examines economic opportunity in the United States and explores how to create more of it, particularly for those on the bottom rungs of the economic ladder. Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill propose a concrete agenda for increasing opportunity that is cost effective, consistent with American values, and focuses on improving the lives of the young and the disadvantaged. They emphasize individual responsibility as an indispensable basis for successful policies and programs. The authors recommend a three-pronged approach to create more opportunity in America: " Increase education for children and youth at the preschool, K--12, and postsecondary levels " Encourage and support work among adults " Reduce the number of out-of-wedlock births while increasing the share of children reared by their married parents With...

    Americans believe economic opportunity is as fundamental a right as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. More concerned about a level playing field for all, they worry less about the growing income and wealth disparity in our country. Creating an Opportunity Society examines economic opportunity in the United States and explores how to create more of it, particularly for those on the bottom rungs of the economic ladder. Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill propose a concrete agenda for increasing opportunity that is cost effective, consistent with American values, and focuses on improving the lives of the young and the disadvantaged. They emphasize individual responsibility as an indispensable basis for successful policies and programs. The authors recommend a three-pronged approach to create more opportunity in America: " Increase education for children and youth at the preschool, K--12, and postsecondary levels " Encourage and support work among adults " Reduce the number of out-of-wedlock births while increasing the share of children reared by their married parents With concern for the federal deficit in mind, Haskins and Sawhill argue for reallocating existing resources, especially from the affluent elderly to disadvantaged children and their families. The authors are optimistic that a judicious use of the nation's resources can level the playing field and produce more opportunity for all. Creating an Opportunity Society offers the most complete summary available of the facts and the factors that contribute to economic opportunity. It looks at the poor, the middle class, and the rich, providing deep background data on how each group has fared in recent decades. Unfortunately, only the rich have made substantial progress, making this book a timely guide forward for anyone interested in what we can do as a society to improve the prospects for our less-advantaged families and fellow citizens. (publisher abstract)

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