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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Edin, Kathryn
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Current theories of marriage under-predict the extent of non-marriage, have not been adequately tested, or do not apply well to women with low-socioeconomic status. Furthermore, scholarly research on marriage attitudes among low-SES women suffers from a lack of up-to-date qualitative work. This study draws on qualitative interviews with 292 low-income single mothers in three U.S. cities. Inductive analysis reveals five primary motivations for non-marriage among low-income single mothers. Most mothers agree that potential marriage partners must earn significantly more than the minimum wage, but also emphasize the importance of stability of employment, source of earnings, and the effort men expend to find and keep their jobs. Mothers place equal or greater emphasis on non-monetary factors such as how marriage may diminish or enhance respectability, how it may limit their control over household decisions, their mistrust of men, and their fear of domestic violence. Affordability, respectability, and control have greater salience for African American mothers, while trust and domestic...

    Current theories of marriage under-predict the extent of non-marriage, have not been adequately tested, or do not apply well to women with low-socioeconomic status. Furthermore, scholarly research on marriage attitudes among low-SES women suffers from a lack of up-to-date qualitative work. This study draws on qualitative interviews with 292 low-income single mothers in three U.S. cities. Inductive analysis reveals five primary motivations for non-marriage among low-income single mothers. Most mothers agree that potential marriage partners must earn significantly more than the minimum wage, but also emphasize the importance of stability of employment, source of earnings, and the effort men expend to find and keep their jobs. Mothers place equal or greater emphasis on non-monetary factors such as how marriage may diminish or enhance respectability, how it may limit their control over household decisions, their mistrust of men, and their fear of domestic violence. Affordability, respectability, and control have greater salience for African American mothers, while trust and domestic violence have greater salience for whites. The author discusses these findings in relation to existing theories of marriage and in light of welfare reform. (author abstract).

  • Individual Author: Feldman, Ruth
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This study examines determinants of father involvement, the parents’ convergence on marital satisfaction, and mothers’ and fathers’ interactive behavior in dual-earner families at the transition to parenthood. Sixty dual-earner Israeli couples and their five-month-old firstborn child were interviewed and videotaped in infant–mother and infant–father interactions. Interactions were coded globally for 21 interactive behaviors and composited into measures of parent sensitivity and infant readiness to interact. Five determinants of each parent’s involvement in house and childcare were assessed as predictors of parent–infant interactions: the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, the amount of time each parent spends with the infant during the week and on weekends, and the range of childcare activities the parent typically performs. Marital convergence was indexed by the absolute difference score between mothers’ and fathers’ marital satisfaction. Father sensitivity was related to the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, to the amount of time the father...

    This study examines determinants of father involvement, the parents’ convergence on marital satisfaction, and mothers’ and fathers’ interactive behavior in dual-earner families at the transition to parenthood. Sixty dual-earner Israeli couples and their five-month-old firstborn child were interviewed and videotaped in infant–mother and infant–father interactions. Interactions were coded globally for 21 interactive behaviors and composited into measures of parent sensitivity and infant readiness to interact. Five determinants of each parent’s involvement in house and childcare were assessed as predictors of parent–infant interactions: the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, the amount of time each parent spends with the infant during the week and on weekends, and the range of childcare activities the parent typically performs. Marital convergence was indexed by the absolute difference score between mothers’ and fathers’ marital satisfaction. Father sensitivity was related to the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, to the amount of time the father spends with the child on weekends (but not during the week), to the range of childcare activities father performs, and to marital convergence. Mother sensitivity was related only to the sharing of responsibilities between spouses. The range of the father’s childcare activities predicted maternal interactive sensitivity. Infant readiness to interact with the father, but not with the mother, was related to the sharing of childcare responsibilities, to the range of father’s childcare activities, and to marital convergence. Results further specify the differential associations between the marital and the parent–child relationship for mothers and fathers and point to the importance of the father’s instrumental involvement in childcare to the development of fathering. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: National Center for Family and Marriage Research
    Reference Type: Dataset
    Year: 2000

    Description: These maps present geographic variation in the adjusted marriage and divorce rates for over 3,000 counties in the United States. The estimates are from county court record data of numbers of marriages and divorces and U.S. Census data from 2000. Researchers can use these data to examine geographic concentrations of marriage and divorce. The county-level marriage and divorce data are provided in a spreadsheet, which contains the county-level number of divorces, population, married population, divorce rates, adjusted divorce rates and geocodes (FIPS).

    Population: Individuals that have been married and/or divorced by U.S. County.

    Periodicity: Data compiled from 2000 Census data.

    (information adapted from the publisher)

    Description: These maps present geographic variation in the adjusted marriage and divorce rates for over 3,000 counties in the United States. The estimates are from county court record data of numbers of marriages and divorces and U.S. Census data from 2000. Researchers can use these data to examine geographic concentrations of marriage and divorce. The county-level marriage and divorce data are provided in a spreadsheet, which contains the county-level number of divorces, population, married population, divorce rates, adjusted divorce rates and geocodes (FIPS).

    Population: Individuals that have been married and/or divorced by U.S. County.

    Periodicity: Data compiled from 2000 Census data.

    (information adapted from the publisher)

  • Individual Author: Cancian, Maria; Reed, Deborah
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Major income support policies in the United States are explicitly tied to family structure—the prototypical example is Aid to Families with ;dependent Children (AFDC), which was largely limited to single-parent families. But marriage, childbearing, family living arrangements, and work patterns have changed, and so too have public perceptions of gender roles, parental responsibility, and the family. Income support policy embodies these profound shifts. For example, the 1996 welfare reforms that replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid for Needy Families reflect growing acceptance that mothers should work, even mothers with very young children. In this article we examine the changes in family structure over the last 30 years. We document the decline in marriage and rise in divorce, and examine the trends behind the increasing proportion of children born outside of marriage. The growth in cohabitation among unmarried couples is an important part of the story, as is the changing relationship between women’s labor force participation and their marital and maternal status. We briefly examine...

    Major income support policies in the United States are explicitly tied to family structure—the prototypical example is Aid to Families with ;dependent Children (AFDC), which was largely limited to single-parent families. But marriage, childbearing, family living arrangements, and work patterns have changed, and so too have public perceptions of gender roles, parental responsibility, and the family. Income support policy embodies these profound shifts. For example, the 1996 welfare reforms that replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid for Needy Families reflect growing acceptance that mothers should work, even mothers with very young children. In this article we examine the changes in family structure over the last 30 years. We document the decline in marriage and rise in divorce, and examine the trends behind the increasing proportion of children born outside of marriage. The growth in cohabitation among unmarried couples is an important part of the story, as is the changing relationship between women’s labor force participation and their marital and maternal status. We briefly examine how these changes have affected poverty and poverty policy in the United States. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: White, Lynn; Rogers, Stacy J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This review documents the economic context within which American families lived in the 1990s. Despite nearly full employment and growing income and wealth for many Americans, problem areas included persistent racial gaps in economic well-being, growing inequality, and declining wages for young men. Women showed stronger income growth than men in the decade, and 2-earner households became increasingly associated with advantage. We review the consequences of these trends and of economic well-being generally on 4 dimensions of family outcomes: family formation, divorce, marital quality, and child well-being. Despite hypotheses suggesting that women's earnings might have different effects on family outcomes than men's earnings, generally the review supports the expectation that both men's and women's economic advantage is associated with more marriage, less divorce, more marital happiness, and greater child well-being. Important issues regarding measurement, reciprocal relations between family structure and economic well-being, and race and gender effects remain unresolved. (author...

    This review documents the economic context within which American families lived in the 1990s. Despite nearly full employment and growing income and wealth for many Americans, problem areas included persistent racial gaps in economic well-being, growing inequality, and declining wages for young men. Women showed stronger income growth than men in the decade, and 2-earner households became increasingly associated with advantage. We review the consequences of these trends and of economic well-being generally on 4 dimensions of family outcomes: family formation, divorce, marital quality, and child well-being. Despite hypotheses suggesting that women's earnings might have different effects on family outcomes than men's earnings, generally the review supports the expectation that both men's and women's economic advantage is associated with more marriage, less divorce, more marital happiness, and greater child well-being. Important issues regarding measurement, reciprocal relations between family structure and economic well-being, and race and gender effects remain unresolved. (author abstract)

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