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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Feldman, Ruth
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This study examines determinants of father involvement, the parents’ convergence on marital satisfaction, and mothers’ and fathers’ interactive behavior in dual-earner families at the transition to parenthood. Sixty dual-earner Israeli couples and their five-month-old firstborn child were interviewed and videotaped in infant–mother and infant–father interactions. Interactions were coded globally for 21 interactive behaviors and composited into measures of parent sensitivity and infant readiness to interact. Five determinants of each parent’s involvement in house and childcare were assessed as predictors of parent–infant interactions: the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, the amount of time each parent spends with the infant during the week and on weekends, and the range of childcare activities the parent typically performs. Marital convergence was indexed by the absolute difference score between mothers’ and fathers’ marital satisfaction. Father sensitivity was related to the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, to the amount of time the father...

    This study examines determinants of father involvement, the parents’ convergence on marital satisfaction, and mothers’ and fathers’ interactive behavior in dual-earner families at the transition to parenthood. Sixty dual-earner Israeli couples and their five-month-old firstborn child were interviewed and videotaped in infant–mother and infant–father interactions. Interactions were coded globally for 21 interactive behaviors and composited into measures of parent sensitivity and infant readiness to interact. Five determinants of each parent’s involvement in house and childcare were assessed as predictors of parent–infant interactions: the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, the amount of time each parent spends with the infant during the week and on weekends, and the range of childcare activities the parent typically performs. Marital convergence was indexed by the absolute difference score between mothers’ and fathers’ marital satisfaction. Father sensitivity was related to the sharing of household and childcare responsibilities, to the amount of time the father spends with the child on weekends (but not during the week), to the range of childcare activities father performs, and to marital convergence. Mother sensitivity was related only to the sharing of responsibilities between spouses. The range of the father’s childcare activities predicted maternal interactive sensitivity. Infant readiness to interact with the father, but not with the mother, was related to the sharing of childcare responsibilities, to the range of father’s childcare activities, and to marital convergence. Results further specify the differential associations between the marital and the parent–child relationship for mothers and fathers and point to the importance of the father’s instrumental involvement in childcare to the development of fathering. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: National Center for Family and Marriage Research
    Reference Type: Dataset
    Year: 2000

    Description: These maps present geographic variation in the adjusted marriage and divorce rates for over 3,000 counties in the United States. The estimates are from county court record data of numbers of marriages and divorces and U.S. Census data from 2000. Researchers can use these data to examine geographic concentrations of marriage and divorce. The county-level marriage and divorce data are provided in a spreadsheet, which contains the county-level number of divorces, population, married population, divorce rates, adjusted divorce rates and geocodes (FIPS).

    Population: Individuals that have been married and/or divorced by U.S. County.

    Periodicity: Data compiled from 2000 Census data.

    (information adapted from the publisher)

    Description: These maps present geographic variation in the adjusted marriage and divorce rates for over 3,000 counties in the United States. The estimates are from county court record data of numbers of marriages and divorces and U.S. Census data from 2000. Researchers can use these data to examine geographic concentrations of marriage and divorce. The county-level marriage and divorce data are provided in a spreadsheet, which contains the county-level number of divorces, population, married population, divorce rates, adjusted divorce rates and geocodes (FIPS).

    Population: Individuals that have been married and/or divorced by U.S. County.

    Periodicity: Data compiled from 2000 Census data.

    (information adapted from the publisher)

  • Individual Author: Cancian, Maria; Reed, Deborah
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    Major income support policies in the United States are explicitly tied to family structure—the prototypical example is Aid to Families with ;dependent Children (AFDC), which was largely limited to single-parent families. But marriage, childbearing, family living arrangements, and work patterns have changed, and so too have public perceptions of gender roles, parental responsibility, and the family. Income support policy embodies these profound shifts. For example, the 1996 welfare reforms that replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid for Needy Families reflect growing acceptance that mothers should work, even mothers with very young children. In this article we examine the changes in family structure over the last 30 years. We document the decline in marriage and rise in divorce, and examine the trends behind the increasing proportion of children born outside of marriage. The growth in cohabitation among unmarried couples is an important part of the story, as is the changing relationship between women’s labor force participation and their marital and maternal status. We briefly examine...

    Major income support policies in the United States are explicitly tied to family structure—the prototypical example is Aid to Families with ;dependent Children (AFDC), which was largely limited to single-parent families. But marriage, childbearing, family living arrangements, and work patterns have changed, and so too have public perceptions of gender roles, parental responsibility, and the family. Income support policy embodies these profound shifts. For example, the 1996 welfare reforms that replaced AFDC with Temporary Aid for Needy Families reflect growing acceptance that mothers should work, even mothers with very young children. In this article we examine the changes in family structure over the last 30 years. We document the decline in marriage and rise in divorce, and examine the trends behind the increasing proportion of children born outside of marriage. The growth in cohabitation among unmarried couples is an important part of the story, as is the changing relationship between women’s labor force participation and their marital and maternal status. We briefly examine how these changes have affected poverty and poverty policy in the United States. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: White, Lynn; Rogers, Stacy J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This review documents the economic context within which American families lived in the 1990s. Despite nearly full employment and growing income and wealth for many Americans, problem areas included persistent racial gaps in economic well-being, growing inequality, and declining wages for young men. Women showed stronger income growth than men in the decade, and 2-earner households became increasingly associated with advantage. We review the consequences of these trends and of economic well-being generally on 4 dimensions of family outcomes: family formation, divorce, marital quality, and child well-being. Despite hypotheses suggesting that women's earnings might have different effects on family outcomes than men's earnings, generally the review supports the expectation that both men's and women's economic advantage is associated with more marriage, less divorce, more marital happiness, and greater child well-being. Important issues regarding measurement, reciprocal relations between family structure and economic well-being, and race and gender effects remain unresolved. (author...

    This review documents the economic context within which American families lived in the 1990s. Despite nearly full employment and growing income and wealth for many Americans, problem areas included persistent racial gaps in economic well-being, growing inequality, and declining wages for young men. Women showed stronger income growth than men in the decade, and 2-earner households became increasingly associated with advantage. We review the consequences of these trends and of economic well-being generally on 4 dimensions of family outcomes: family formation, divorce, marital quality, and child well-being. Despite hypotheses suggesting that women's earnings might have different effects on family outcomes than men's earnings, generally the review supports the expectation that both men's and women's economic advantage is associated with more marriage, less divorce, more marital happiness, and greater child well-being. Important issues regarding measurement, reciprocal relations between family structure and economic well-being, and race and gender effects remain unresolved. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: McLanahan, Sara; Sandefur, Gary
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Nonwhite and white, rich and poor, born to an unwed mother or weathering divorce, over half of all children in the current generation will live in a single-parent family--and these children simply will not fare as well as their peers who live with both parents. This is the clear and urgent message of this powerful book. Based on four national surveys and drawing on more than a decade of research, Growing Up with a Single Parent sharply demonstrates the connection between family structure and a child’s prospects for success.

    What are the chances that the child of a single parent will graduate from high school, go on to college, find and keep a job? Will she become a teenage mother? Will he be out of school and out of work? These are the questions the authors pursue across the spectrum of race, gender, and class. Children whose parents live apart, the authors find, are twice as likely to drop out of high school as those in two-parent families, one and a half times as likely to be idle in young adulthood, twice as likely to become single parents themselves. This...

    Nonwhite and white, rich and poor, born to an unwed mother or weathering divorce, over half of all children in the current generation will live in a single-parent family--and these children simply will not fare as well as their peers who live with both parents. This is the clear and urgent message of this powerful book. Based on four national surveys and drawing on more than a decade of research, Growing Up with a Single Parent sharply demonstrates the connection between family structure and a child’s prospects for success.

    What are the chances that the child of a single parent will graduate from high school, go on to college, find and keep a job? Will she become a teenage mother? Will he be out of school and out of work? These are the questions the authors pursue across the spectrum of race, gender, and class. Children whose parents live apart, the authors find, are twice as likely to drop out of high school as those in two-parent families, one and a half times as likely to be idle in young adulthood, twice as likely to become single parents themselves. This study shows how divorce--particularly an attendant drop in income, parental involvement, and access to community resources--diminishes children’s chances for well-being.

    The authors provide answers to other practical questions that many single parents may ask: Does the gender of the child or the custodial parent affect these outcomes? Does having a stepparent, a grandmother, or a nonmarital partner in the household help or hurt? Do children who stay in the same community after divorce fare better? Their data reveal that some of the advantages often associated with being white are really a function of family structure, and that some of the advantages associated with having educated parents evaporate when those parents separate.

    In a concluding chapter, McLanahan and Sandefur offer clear recommendations for rethinking our current policies. Single parents are here to stay, and their worsening situation is tearing at the fabric of our society. It is imperative, the authors show, that we shift more of the costs of raising children from mothers to fathers and from parents to society at large. Likewise, we must develop universal assistance programs that benefit low-income two-parent families as well as single mothers. Startling in its findings and trenchant in its analysis, Growing Up with a Single Parent will serve to inform both the personal decisions and governmental policies that affect our children’s--and our nation’s--future. (publisher abstract)

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