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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Cowing, Adam; De La Peza, Remy; Hanuman, Shashi; Lin, Serena W.; Marquit, Anne L.; Smith, Doug
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2012

    Southern California is in the midst of a radical transformation driven by smart growth ideals and an influx of projected investment into new and existing transit. The key question facing our communities is this: how can planning and development happen so that everyone benefits and nobody is left behind? Public Counsel’s Community Development Project is proud to release Getting There Together: Tools to Advocate for Inclusive Development Near Transit. This guide is a Southern California housing advocates’ guide outlining legal tools for influencing affordable housing and land use and disposition policies in a new era of transit-oriented development and smart growth.  It sets forth selected strategies that can be used by advocates at the regional, local, neighborhood, and project-specific levels to meaningfully participate in shaping the landscape of our neighborhoods. (author abstract)

    Southern California is in the midst of a radical transformation driven by smart growth ideals and an influx of projected investment into new and existing transit. The key question facing our communities is this: how can planning and development happen so that everyone benefits and nobody is left behind? Public Counsel’s Community Development Project is proud to release Getting There Together: Tools to Advocate for Inclusive Development Near Transit. This guide is a Southern California housing advocates’ guide outlining legal tools for influencing affordable housing and land use and disposition policies in a new era of transit-oriented development and smart growth.  It sets forth selected strategies that can be used by advocates at the regional, local, neighborhood, and project-specific levels to meaningfully participate in shaping the landscape of our neighborhoods. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sandoval, J.S. O. ; Peterson, Eric; Hunt, Kim L.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    The 1996 federal welfare-to-work legislation generated significant debate regarding what role public transportation should play in facilitating lower welfare rates.  Given this debate, transportation has been called the “to” component of welfare-to-work.  In this paper, we present findings from three case studies that examine job accessibility and reverse commute transportation programs in the Chicago, Kansas City, and San Francisco metropolitan regions.  We explored how institutional and/or grassroots support prevented or fostered the innovation and implementation of non-traditional Access-to-Jobs and Reverse Commute (JARC) programs.  Our findings suggest that institutional support and grassroots support are necessary ingredients for the implementation of innovative transportation programs for low-income families. (author abstract)

    The 1996 federal welfare-to-work legislation generated significant debate regarding what role public transportation should play in facilitating lower welfare rates.  Given this debate, transportation has been called the “to” component of welfare-to-work.  In this paper, we present findings from three case studies that examine job accessibility and reverse commute transportation programs in the Chicago, Kansas City, and San Francisco metropolitan regions.  We explored how institutional and/or grassroots support prevented or fostered the innovation and implementation of non-traditional Access-to-Jobs and Reverse Commute (JARC) programs.  Our findings suggest that institutional support and grassroots support are necessary ingredients for the implementation of innovative transportation programs for low-income families. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kawabata, Mizuki
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2002

    One of the major concerns in today's urban labor market is spatial mismatch, the geographic separation between jobs and workers. Although numerous studies examine spatial mismatch, most of them focus on inner-city minorities, and the spatial mismatch problem for all autoless workers in a metropolitan area as a whole has not been well explored. Focusing on low-skilled workers and welfare recipients, this dissertation explores and quantifies the importance of job accessibility in employment outcomes for disadvantaged workers without autos in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    Metropolitan areas studied are Boston, San Francisco, and Los Angeles for low-skilled workers and Los Angeles for welfare recipients. An essential component of the analysis is the calculation of improved job-access measures that take into account supply and demand sides of the labor market and travel modes. The resulting measures indicate that, contrary to the perception of many spatial mismatch studies, central-city areas still offer more of a geographical advantage in accessing employment opportunities than...

    One of the major concerns in today's urban labor market is spatial mismatch, the geographic separation between jobs and workers. Although numerous studies examine spatial mismatch, most of them focus on inner-city minorities, and the spatial mismatch problem for all autoless workers in a metropolitan area as a whole has not been well explored. Focusing on low-skilled workers and welfare recipients, this dissertation explores and quantifies the importance of job accessibility in employment outcomes for disadvantaged workers without autos in U.S. metropolitan areas.

    Metropolitan areas studied are Boston, San Francisco, and Los Angeles for low-skilled workers and Los Angeles for welfare recipients. An essential component of the analysis is the calculation of improved job-access measures that take into account supply and demand sides of the labor market and travel modes. The resulting measures indicate that, contrary to the perception of many spatial mismatch studies, central-city areas still offer more of a geographical advantage in accessing employment opportunities than suburban areas, despite the substantial suburbanization of employment. In other words, spatial mismatch is greater in suburban areas than in central-city areas. The measures also indicate that the levels of spatially accessible job opportunities are considerably lower for transit users than for auto users. In other words, spatial mismatch is much greater for transit users than for auto users. This transit/auto disparity is much greater than the central-city/suburb disparity, suggesting that the mode of travel has greater importance in determining job accessibility than location. These findings suggest that spatial mismatch may pose a serious problem for autoless workers, particularly for those who live in suburban areas, although it may not be a problem for workers with autos.

    By incorporating the improved job-access measures into multinomial logit (MNL) models and regression models with Heckman correction, I find that improving job accessibility for transit users significantly augments the employment probability and the probability of working fulltime for low-skilled autoless workers in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Further, in all three areas the job-access effect is greater for low-skilled autoless workers than for low-skilled autoowning workers. Applying the same analytical framework for welfare recipients in Los Angeles, I find consistent results. I also find that job accessibility for transit users plays a more important role in employment outcomes in San Francisco and Los Angeles, more highly autodependent areas, than in Boston, a more compact area with relatively well-developed transit systems. The empirical findings together suggest that spatial mismatch is in fact the problem for autoless workers in suburban areas where jobs are dispersed and public transportation is poorly developed. The findings also suggest that spatial mismatch is more likely to be an employment barrier for those who live in suburban areas than for those who live in central-city areas, which contradicts the dominant view among spatial mismatch researchers.

    The empirical findings hold important policy implications. Simulations of some policy scenarios indicate that for autoless workers in highly auto-dependent areas, a housing dispersal program would actually worsen their employment prospects, although for auto-owning workers such a program could be helpful, and that transportation mobility programs that improve mobility and job accessibility for transit users would enhance the employment outcomes for autoless as well as for auto-owning workers. Thus, this dissertation's empirical analysis of the combination of spatial and transportation mismatch contributes new information for the theory and policy debate surrounding the problem of spatial mismatch. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Scholl, Lynn
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2002

    This working paper is designed as a reference document for transportation planners and researchers interested in transportation affordability and related issues for low-income people. The first chapter reviews the research literature on transportation and low-income populations. Chapter Two describes ongoing research projects that will add to our understanding of transportation affordability issues. Chapter Three provides information on several transportation assistance programs for low-income people in the San Francisco Bay Area. The topics covered are outlined in detail in the Table of Contents. The Table of Contents can be used as an index for identifying relevant sections of text based on the topic of interest. This working paper is an initial step in the development of a research agenda on transportation affordability for low-income populations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Development of this research agenda is a collaborative effort of the Public Policy Institute of California and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. (Author abstract)

    This working paper is designed as a reference document for transportation planners and researchers interested in transportation affordability and related issues for low-income people. The first chapter reviews the research literature on transportation and low-income populations. Chapter Two describes ongoing research projects that will add to our understanding of transportation affordability issues. Chapter Three provides information on several transportation assistance programs for low-income people in the San Francisco Bay Area. The topics covered are outlined in detail in the Table of Contents. The Table of Contents can be used as an index for identifying relevant sections of text based on the topic of interest. This working paper is an initial step in the development of a research agenda on transportation affordability for low-income populations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Development of this research agenda is a collaborative effort of the Public Policy Institute of California and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Chapple, Karen
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    The major policy approaches to welfare-to-work attempt to facilitate the transition into the workforce by providing job search assistance and transportation subsidies. Although these policies help some women on welfare, they fail to respond to the needs of most, who rely disproportionately on social contacts to find jobs, seek to minimize commutes, and lack the educational attainment that would help them penetrate the regional labor market. This article uses in-depth interviews with 92 women on welfare in San Francisco, as well as a binomial logit model, to examine the relationship between job search strategies and employment characteristics. The findings suggest that low-income women with children are more likely to rely on contacts than women without children, because they seek to work close to home. For most women, building connections to employers, improving human capital, and increasing the density of neighborhood economic and social activity will make jobs more accessible. (author abstract)

    The major policy approaches to welfare-to-work attempt to facilitate the transition into the workforce by providing job search assistance and transportation subsidies. Although these policies help some women on welfare, they fail to respond to the needs of most, who rely disproportionately on social contacts to find jobs, seek to minimize commutes, and lack the educational attainment that would help them penetrate the regional labor market. This article uses in-depth interviews with 92 women on welfare in San Francisco, as well as a binomial logit model, to examine the relationship between job search strategies and employment characteristics. The findings suggest that low-income women with children are more likely to rely on contacts than women without children, because they seek to work close to home. For most women, building connections to employers, improving human capital, and increasing the density of neighborhood economic and social activity will make jobs more accessible. (author abstract)