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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Farrell, Mary; Martinson, Karin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Bridge to Employment in the Healthcare Industry program, designed by the San Diego Workforce Partnership and operated by three community-based organizations in San Diego County, California. Bridge to Employment is one promising effort to help low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. It is one of nine career pathways programs being evaluated under the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Bridge to Employment program consisted of five components: (1) Assessments to determine eligibility for training programs; (2) Navigation and case management services to help students choose their training and address barriers to participation; (3) Individual training account (ITA) vouchers to cover the cost of training; (4) Supportive services for transportation, child care, and other services; and (5) Employment services to help participants find employment...

    This report documents the implementation and early impacts of the Bridge to Employment in the Healthcare Industry program, designed by the San Diego Workforce Partnership and operated by three community-based organizations in San Diego County, California. Bridge to Employment is one promising effort to help low-income, low-skilled adults access and complete occupational training that can lead to increased employment and higher earnings. It is one of nine career pathways programs being evaluated under the Pathways for Advancing Careers and Education (PACE) study sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families. The Bridge to Employment program consisted of five components: (1) Assessments to determine eligibility for training programs; (2) Navigation and case management services to help students choose their training and address barriers to participation; (3) Individual training account (ITA) vouchers to cover the cost of training; (4) Supportive services for transportation, child care, and other services; and (5) Employment services to help participants find employment after training. Using a rigorous research design, the study found that Bridge to Employment increased the credentials its participants received and increased employment in a healthcare occupation within the 18-month follow-up period. Future reports will examine whether these effects translate into economic gains in the workplace in the longer term. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Blumenberg, Evelyn; Pierce, Gregory
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Transportation enables low-income individuals to find and travel to employment. This article analyzes the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and employment outcomes of low-income households. We use longitudinal survey data from participants in the Welfare to Work Voucher Program, which was conducted in five US metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2005. Multinomial logistic regression shows that baseline access to automobiles has a strong positive relationship to follow-up employment but public transit access and receipt of housing assistance do not. Our findings suggest that enhancing car access will notably improve employment outcomes among very-low-income adults, but other assistance will have, at best, marginal effects. (author abstract)

    Transportation enables low-income individuals to find and travel to employment. This article analyzes the relationship between access to automobiles and public transit and employment outcomes of low-income households. We use longitudinal survey data from participants in the Welfare to Work Voucher Program, which was conducted in five US metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2005. Multinomial logistic regression shows that baseline access to automobiles has a strong positive relationship to follow-up employment but public transit access and receipt of housing assistance do not. Our findings suggest that enhancing car access will notably improve employment outcomes among very-low-income adults, but other assistance will have, at best, marginal effects. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bird, Kisha; Okoh, Clarence
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Employment is an important part of youth development and the successful progression into young adulthood. Young people learn important communication and social skills, and are also exposed to careers, workplace culture, and opportunities to hone problem-solving and interpersonal skills. Research reinforces the importance of early work experience, especially for poor and low-income youth. Youth employment strategies, including summer jobs, paid internships, and year-round subsidized work experiences, can be linked to a broader approach to address poverty. Children who are born poor—and are persistently poor—are significantly more likely than those not poor at birth to experience poverty in adulthood, unemployment, and underemployment. Persistent childhood poverty (living below the federal poverty level for at least half of one’s childhood) is prevalent among Black children. To lift children—particularly children and youth of color—out of poverty, they must have access to work and a career path leading into adulthood. Beyond eventual economic security and social mobility, there are...

    Employment is an important part of youth development and the successful progression into young adulthood. Young people learn important communication and social skills, and are also exposed to careers, workplace culture, and opportunities to hone problem-solving and interpersonal skills. Research reinforces the importance of early work experience, especially for poor and low-income youth. Youth employment strategies, including summer jobs, paid internships, and year-round subsidized work experiences, can be linked to a broader approach to address poverty. Children who are born poor—and are persistently poor—are significantly more likely than those not poor at birth to experience poverty in adulthood, unemployment, and underemployment. Persistent childhood poverty (living below the federal poverty level for at least half of one’s childhood) is prevalent among Black children. To lift children—particularly children and youth of color—out of poverty, they must have access to work and a career path leading into adulthood. Beyond eventual economic security and social mobility, there are many short and long-term benefits to youth employment. Employed teens are more likely to graduate high school, and recent research studies suggest that employment during the summer months can prevent involvement in the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Moreover, employment in the teen years is a significant predictor of successful attachment to the labor market into adulthood. It is also linked to increased earnings in the short-term and later in life. In fact, older youth have almost a 100% chance of being employed in a given year if they have worked more than 40 weeks in the previous year. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Kelly, E. B.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    The article reports on the study of single mothers in rural areas in the U.S. It addresses proximity to jobs and access to transportation as potential barriers to employment and challenges in getting to work in both urban and rural contexts. It found that owning and/or having access to a reliable car makes a difference in low-income mothers are able to maintain low-wage employment. (author abstract)

    The article reports on the study of single mothers in rural areas in the U.S. It addresses proximity to jobs and access to transportation as potential barriers to employment and challenges in getting to work in both urban and rural contexts. It found that owning and/or having access to a reliable car makes a difference in low-income mothers are able to maintain low-wage employment. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kim, Seok-Joo
    Reference Type: Thesis
    Year: 2013

    Purpose and Background: This study aimed to test the effects of job access and neighborhood disadvantage on the employment success of female former welfare recipients. It mainly addressed vital policy concerns on employment issues of Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF) recipients who exited cash assistance. This study was grounded on two theoretical perspectives: (1) the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis (SMH) that explained job access as a barrier to employment and (2) Wilson’s observation that neighborhood disadvantage negatively affected employment.

    Method: As a non-experimental design, this longitudinal study merged two local administrative datasets with 2000 Census data. This study selected female former welfare recipients (N=13,788) (1) who exited cash assistance and were employed between 2000 and 2003, and (2) who resided in 405 census tracts of Cuyahoga County. Employment success was measured by: job retention, two-year employment, and average quarterly earnings. In addition to demographic and human capital variables, the independent variables that were measured...

    Purpose and Background: This study aimed to test the effects of job access and neighborhood disadvantage on the employment success of female former welfare recipients. It mainly addressed vital policy concerns on employment issues of Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF) recipients who exited cash assistance. This study was grounded on two theoretical perspectives: (1) the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis (SMH) that explained job access as a barrier to employment and (2) Wilson’s observation that neighborhood disadvantage negatively affected employment.

    Method: As a non-experimental design, this longitudinal study merged two local administrative datasets with 2000 Census data. This study selected female former welfare recipients (N=13,788) (1) who exited cash assistance and were employed between 2000 and 2003, and (2) who resided in 405 census tracts of Cuyahoga County. Employment success was measured by: job retention, two-year employment, and average quarterly earnings. In addition to demographic and human capital variables, the independent variables that were measured: (1) individual job access (distances), (2) neighborhood public transportation access, and (3) neighborhood disadvantage. As a main analysis, Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) and Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) were conducted to test the nested effects of job access and neighborhood disadvantage on employment success. Furthermore, this study used spatial analysis (mapping and spatial auto-correlation) to support the main analysis.

    Results: This study found variances of the employment success among neighborhoods. The results showed that neighborhood disadvantage adversely affected the employment success of female former welfare recipients; however, shorter job distances and higher public transportation access only increased average quarterly earnings.

    Discussion: The results suggested three domains for implication on social work programs and social policy: (1) neighborhood disadvantage, (2) individual job access and neighborhood public transportation access, and (3) cash assistance program and policy. In particular, this study recommended community development and residential programs should ameliorate the job access barriers and neighborhood disadvantage of welfare recipients. The implementation of cash assistance programs should consider the effects of job access and neighborhood disadvantage. (Author abstract)

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