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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Maloy, Kathleen A.; Pavetti, LaDonna A.; Darnell, Julie; Shin, Peter
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the individual entitlement to welfare benefits and gave states new flexibility to emphasize work instead welfare. PRWORA also severed the traditional eligibility link between Medicaid and welfare. This research examined the emergence of diversion programs as a particular aspect of state welfare reform efforts and the potential for diversion programs to reduce access to Medicaid. In this second of two reports, we present the results of case studies in five states.

    Major findings from this research are:

    • Formal strategies to divert families from welfare are an increasingly common aspect of states' efforts to shift to a work-oriented assistance system. These efforts to emphasize work instead of welfare on the “front end” can also result in informal diversion.
    • Design and implementation of diversion programs reflect state and/or local goals and philosophies; these five states represent a range of diversion strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding key design and implementation choices in each state and, in some cases, each local office within a state.
    • Of the three types of formal diversion, mandatory applicant job search represents the fastest growing program with the greatest potential to divert large numbers of families.
    • Diversion, both formal and informal, has substantial potential to reduce initial access to Medicaid, particularly as families increasingly bypass welfare or go to work quickly thereby becoming ineligible for Medicaid under most states’ current eligibility criteria.
    • State officials can ameliorate this effect on Medicaid by improving implementation efforts and taking advantage of policy options under Section 1931 to focus attention on Medicaid as a stand-alone health insurance program for low-income families.
    • The compelling Medicaid and welfare reform policy challenge posed by diversion is how to use Medicaid effectively to support the welfare reform goal to promote work. Because PRWORA fundamentally changed the nature of the welfare system, states can and should consider whether it is a desirable consequence of their Medicaid and welfare policies that access to Medicaid for diverted families is limited or unavailable.
    • Little information is available on the number and circumstances of families who have been diverted from the welfare rolls. Without such information, reports on the success or failure of state welfare reform efforts will be incomplete.

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Marks, Ellen L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    In 1998, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) initiated a project on rural welfare to work strategies. Competitive grants were awarded to ten states to: increase knowledge about strategies currently used in rural areas, develop new strategies and approaches to be tested, and assist in designing appropriate research questions and methods to evaluate alternative strategies for welfare reform in low-income rural communities.

    Matters that the states are addressing include: 1) Ways that the rural TANF population differs from the nonrural TANF population in terms of employability, access to affordable and quality child care, special circumstances, and service needs. 2) The best strategies, policies, and programs to overcome challenges that affect TANF participants and children in rural, low-income families. 3) The most effective approaches to implement and test programs that will produce useful information for rural welfare to work strategies. (author abstract)

    In 1998, the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) initiated a project on rural welfare to work strategies. Competitive grants were awarded to ten states to: increase knowledge about strategies currently used in rural areas, develop new strategies and approaches to be tested, and assist in designing appropriate research questions and methods to evaluate alternative strategies for welfare reform in low-income rural communities.

    Matters that the states are addressing include: 1) Ways that the rural TANF population differs from the nonrural TANF population in terms of employability, access to affordable and quality child care, special circumstances, and service needs. 2) The best strategies, policies, and programs to overcome challenges that affect TANF participants and children in rural, low-income families. 3) The most effective approaches to implement and test programs that will produce useful information for rural welfare to work strategies. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gundersen, Craig; LeBlanc, Michael; Kuhn, Betsey
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) dramatically transformed and continues to transform the food assistance landscape in the United States. The Act cut more funds from the Food Stamp Program than it did from any other program, through reductions in benefits per person and restrictions in eligibility. Despite these cuts, food stamps now have a more prominent role in the post-welfare reform social safety net because the largest cash-assistance entitlement program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), was replaced with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, a nonentitlement program. This leaves the Food Stamp Program as one of the only remaining entitlement programs available to almost all low-income households. (Author abstract)

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) dramatically transformed and continues to transform the food assistance landscape in the United States. The Act cut more funds from the Food Stamp Program than it did from any other program, through reductions in benefits per person and restrictions in eligibility. Despite these cuts, food stamps now have a more prominent role in the post-welfare reform social safety net because the largest cash-assistance entitlement program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), was replaced with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, a nonentitlement program. This leaves the Food Stamp Program as one of the only remaining entitlement programs available to almost all low-income households. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hellegers, Adam
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    The author's proposal is based on an analysis of the statutory undergirdings and litigative history behind HUD's 'one-strike' rule, a policy which encourages local public housing authorities to empower themselves to terminate a tenancy as a result of the criminal activity of a public housing tenant, any member of such tenant's household, or any guest or person under the tenant's 'control.' Having concluded that the legislation authorizing this policy does not specify whether such tenant need even be aware of such criminal activity to trigger lease termination, and that most courts are restrained from proffering any interpretation beyond whether the strictures imposed by the policy are 'reasonable,' the author proposes that the residents of each local public housing authority be empowered to determine how far 'one-strike' should reach in their community. The article recommends that tenant-elected committees (which already exist in most public housing projects) convene to decide, within broad constitutional parameters,...

    The author's proposal is based on an analysis of the statutory undergirdings and litigative history behind HUD's 'one-strike' rule, a policy which encourages local public housing authorities to empower themselves to terminate a tenancy as a result of the criminal activity of a public housing tenant, any member of such tenant's household, or any guest or person under the tenant's 'control.' Having concluded that the legislation authorizing this policy does not specify whether such tenant need even be aware of such criminal activity to trigger lease termination, and that most courts are restrained from proffering any interpretation beyond whether the strictures imposed by the policy are 'reasonable,' the author proposes that the residents of each local public housing authority be empowered to determine how far 'one-strike' should reach in their community. The article recommends that tenant-elected committees (which already exist in most public housing projects) convene to decide, within broad constitutional parameters, whether these 'innocent' evictions are necessary in their neighborhood, how far the policy should extend (the relationship to the criminal actor, the location of the activity, and the tenant's knowledge of or consent to such activity) and how to divine the proper balance (if any is to be had) between community safety and civil liberty. HUD's marketing materials and regulatory initiatives often promote self-sufficiency and citizen participation as crucial components of a stable and upwardly mobile public housing community; the 'one-strike' rule presents a unique opportunity to do more than offer lip service to this idea, and place this controversy into the hands of those who have the most vested interest in its resolution. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rose, Donald
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes...

    This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes <50% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are higher for adult women and elderly individuals from food-insufficient households. Preschoolers from food-insufficient households do not consume significantly lower amounts than those from food-sufficient households, but mean intakes for the rest of members in those very same households are significantly lower for the food insufficient. This research highlights the importance of food insecurity and hunger indicators, further validates the use of self-reported measures and points to areas of need for future research and interventions. (author abstract)

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