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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Miller, Cynthia
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    After its first 18 months, the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) produced substantial effects on the employment and earnings of single-parent, long-term recipients in urban areas. Subsequent analyses revealed that the program had notably different effects on recipients who were in public or subsidized housing at program entry compared with those who were not. Specifically, MFIP's impacts on employment and earnings were larger for the former group. This paper presents MFIP's 18-month impacts by housing status and examines several possible reasons for the pattern of impacts.

    The results indicate that public and subsidized housing does provide benefits, such as residential stability, that may encourage employment, but that these benefits are unlikely to account for the pattern of MFIP’s impacts. The weight of the evidence, although indirect, suggests that another aspect of public and subsidized housing may be important. The work disincentive created by the rent rule may have led to a situation in which many residents in public and subsidized housing were especially...

    After its first 18 months, the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) produced substantial effects on the employment and earnings of single-parent, long-term recipients in urban areas. Subsequent analyses revealed that the program had notably different effects on recipients who were in public or subsidized housing at program entry compared with those who were not. Specifically, MFIP's impacts on employment and earnings were larger for the former group. This paper presents MFIP's 18-month impacts by housing status and examines several possible reasons for the pattern of impacts.

    The results indicate that public and subsidized housing does provide benefits, such as residential stability, that may encourage employment, but that these benefits are unlikely to account for the pattern of MFIP’s impacts. The weight of the evidence, although indirect, suggests that another aspect of public and subsidized housing may be important. The work disincentive created by the rent rule may have led to a situation in which many residents in public and subsidized housing were especially responsive to MFIP’s employment incentives. The evidence on this issue is only suggestive, however, highlighting the need for further research on the interaction between public housing and welfare reform. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Dalaker, Joseph; Naifeh, Mary
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Poor people in the United States are so diverse that they cannot be characterized along any one dimension. Therefore, this report presents poverty data by selected characteristics—age, race and Hispanic origin, nativity, family composition, work experience, and geography—to illustrate how poverty rates vary. (author abstract)

    Poor people in the United States are so diverse that they cannot be characterized along any one dimension. Therefore, this report presents poverty data by selected characteristics—age, race and Hispanic origin, nativity, family composition, work experience, and geography—to illustrate how poverty rates vary. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Regenstein, Marsha; Meyer, Jack A.; Hicks, Jennifer Dickemper
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    While much of the welfare reform debate has centered on the supply side of the labor market-how to motivate welfare recipients to search for and take jobs-less attention has been paid to the demand side. Under what conditions will employers hire people on welfare? What are their requirements and expectations? What kinds of jobs are available to people leaving welfare, and what pay and benefits are offered?

    This brief presents the key results of a nationwide survey conducted by the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) as part of the Assessing the New Federalism project to determine employers' attitudes about hiring welfare recipients. The survey was predicated on the idea that if states have a better understanding of employers' attitudes and requirements, they will be better able to design successful approaches to moving people into jobs and helping them stay there.

    The survey included 500 businesses at the establishment level (e.g., individual stores, plants, or offices) in industries likely to have higher-than-average numbers of entry-level...

    While much of the welfare reform debate has centered on the supply side of the labor market-how to motivate welfare recipients to search for and take jobs-less attention has been paid to the demand side. Under what conditions will employers hire people on welfare? What are their requirements and expectations? What kinds of jobs are available to people leaving welfare, and what pay and benefits are offered?

    This brief presents the key results of a nationwide survey conducted by the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) as part of the Assessing the New Federalism project to determine employers' attitudes about hiring welfare recipients. The survey was predicated on the idea that if states have a better understanding of employers' attitudes and requirements, they will be better able to design successful approaches to moving people into jobs and helping them stay there.

    The survey included 500 businesses at the establishment level (e.g., individual stores, plants, or offices) in industries likely to have higher-than-average numbers of entry-level workers. The ESRI sample consists mostly of small employers with fewer than 50 workers. In order to gain insight into any potential differences in attitudes among establishments of different sizes, however, we oversampled those with 100 or more employees.

    We conducted an additional 200 interviews-100 each in Los Angeles and Milwaukee-to see how these two cities might differ from national responses. Both of these cities have large welfare populations. Milwaukee is considered a national leader in innovative welfare-to-work initiatives, while Los Angeles is a large urban area with a diverse population that includes many immigrants.

    Prior to undertaking the large national survey, we conducted a small exploratory telephone survey of 25 employers. Their responses, emerging from in-depth discussions, were very similar to the findings in the national sample. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: The Council of Economic Advisers
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    The strongest labor market in a generation has resulted in particularly large gains among low-wage and disadvantaged workers. From 1979 to 1993, the real wages of low-wage workers fell sharply. Recently, however, low-wage workers have experienced large increases in real wages: For low-wage men, wages are up since 1996 by 5.7 percent after inflation. And for low-wage women, real wages have risen 6.1 percent.

    These strong wage gains have been accompanied by a steep decline in unemployment for low-skilled workers. In 1993, 11.1 percent of workers without a high school degree were unemployed; today that rate has fallen to 7.2 percent. Among high school graduates (with no college), the rate has fallen from 6.6 to 3.9 percent. Low-wage workers are thus gaining both by working more and by earning more for every hour that they work.

    The effects of a strong economy have been reinforced by successful policies designed to make work pay. Expansions in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) since 1993 are supplementing the incomes of low-wage working parents. The EITC is one of our...

    The strongest labor market in a generation has resulted in particularly large gains among low-wage and disadvantaged workers. From 1979 to 1993, the real wages of low-wage workers fell sharply. Recently, however, low-wage workers have experienced large increases in real wages: For low-wage men, wages are up since 1996 by 5.7 percent after inflation. And for low-wage women, real wages have risen 6.1 percent.

    These strong wage gains have been accompanied by a steep decline in unemployment for low-skilled workers. In 1993, 11.1 percent of workers without a high school degree were unemployed; today that rate has fallen to 7.2 percent. Among high school graduates (with no college), the rate has fallen from 6.6 to 3.9 percent. Low-wage workers are thus gaining both by working more and by earning more for every hour that they work.

    The effects of a strong economy have been reinforced by successful policies designed to make work pay. Expansions in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) since 1993 are supplementing the incomes of low-wage working parents. The EITC is one of our most successful programs for fighting poverty and encouraging work:

    • Lifts more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. The EITC lifted 4.3 million Americans out of poverty in 1997 -- more than double the number in 1993.
    • Dramatically reduces child poverty. In 1997, the EITC reduced the number of children living in poverty by 2.2 million. This report finds that over half of the decline in child poverty between 1993 and 1997 can be explained by changes in taxes, most importantly the EITC.
    • Encourages work among single women with children. In 1992, 73.7 percent of single women with children were in the labor force. In 1997, 84.2 percent of such women were in the labor force. The percentage of single women with children who received welfare and did not work has been cut by more than half -- from 19.3 percent in 1992 to 8.3 percent in 1997.[Based on CPS tabs by Liebman.] Research studies suggest that the increase in labor force participation among single mothers is strongly linked to the expansion in the EITC.

    Increases in the minimum wage have been important in raising the earnings of low-wage workers. Empirical research suggests that recent minimum wage increases have had little or no adverse effect on employment.

    The combined effects of the minimum wage and the EITC have dramatically increased the returns to work for families with children. Between 1993 and 1997, families with one child and one earner who worked full-time at the minimum wage (i.e., $4.72 in 1993 and $5.15 in 1997, in 1997 dollars) experienced a 14 percent -- $1,402 -- increase in their income, after inflation, just because of these two policies alone. Similar families with two children experienced a 27 percent -- $2,761 -- increase in their income. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Grubb, W. Norton; Badway, Norena
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    This monograph describes the mandatory cooperative education program at LaGuardia Community College in New York City, and the series of seminars that integrate school-based and work-based learning. This series of studies examines the history, practice, and quality of cooperative education (CE) in two-year colleges in regions where career education is firmly ingrained and widespread. One study describes a mandatory cooperative education program and its series of seminars that integrate school-based and work-based learning to actively explore careers; to master skills and competencies common to all jobs; and to explore social, ethical, political, and moral themes associated with working. The second study found that benefits of CE cited by students, employers, and schools were allowing employers to screen and "grow their own" employees, giving students direct knowledge about the workplace and applications of school-based learning in the workplace; and strengthening schools' links to employers. A key finding is that work-based components must become central to educational purposes of...

    This monograph describes the mandatory cooperative education program at LaGuardia Community College in New York City, and the series of seminars that integrate school-based and work-based learning. This series of studies examines the history, practice, and quality of cooperative education (CE) in two-year colleges in regions where career education is firmly ingrained and widespread. One study describes a mandatory cooperative education program and its series of seminars that integrate school-based and work-based learning to actively explore careers; to master skills and competencies common to all jobs; and to explore social, ethical, political, and moral themes associated with working. The second study found that benefits of CE cited by students, employers, and schools were allowing employers to screen and "grow their own" employees, giving students direct knowledge about the workplace and applications of school-based learning in the workplace; and strengthening schools' links to employers. A key finding is that work-based components must become central to educational purposes of institutions so that it becomes as unthinkable to give them up, even in times of scarce resources. (author abstract)

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