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  • Individual Author: Zill, Nicholas; Resnick, Gary; McKey, Ruth Hubbell; Clark, Cheryl; Connell, David C.; Swartz, Janet; O’Brien, Robert; D’Elio, Mary Ann
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    As the nation's premier early childhood education program, Head Start is leading the way in developing and reporting on its accountability for services to approximately 800,000 children and their families each year. From initial planning in 1995 to the publication of this Head Start Performance Measures Second Progress Report, Head Start has made dramatic progress toward the development of an outcome-oriented accountability system. This approach combines the best attributes of scientific research with program-level reporting and monitoring and is based on a consensus-driven set of criteria for program accountability.

    The Head Start Program Performance Measures Initiative is a response to a specific legislative mandate, strategic planning for Head Start, and broader public emphasis on accountability and the general movement toward results-oriented evaluation.

    Specifically the Program Performance Measures were developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion, the mandate of Section 641A (b) of the Head...

    As the nation's premier early childhood education program, Head Start is leading the way in developing and reporting on its accountability for services to approximately 800,000 children and their families each year. From initial planning in 1995 to the publication of this Head Start Performance Measures Second Progress Report, Head Start has made dramatic progress toward the development of an outcome-oriented accountability system. This approach combines the best attributes of scientific research with program-level reporting and monitoring and is based on a consensus-driven set of criteria for program accountability.

    The Head Start Program Performance Measures Initiative is a response to a specific legislative mandate, strategic planning for Head Start, and broader public emphasis on accountability and the general movement toward results-oriented evaluation.

    Specifically the Program Performance Measures were developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Head Start Quality and Expansion, the mandate of Section 641A (b) of the Head Start Act (42 USC 9831 et seq.) as reauthorized in 1994 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)(Public Law 103-62). Signed into law in July 1993, the GPRA requires all federally funded programs to improve their performance and accountability. Other efforts taking place at the Federal level include the Chief Financial Officers Act and the Vice President's National Performance Review, both of which added impetus to the development of the Head Start Program Performance Measures. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    This volume is the second annual report presenting an overview of the well-being of America’s children. Prepared by the Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, as required by President Clinton’s Executive Order No. 13045, the report is a product of collaborative efforts by 18 Federal agencies. Readers will find here an accessible compendium—drawn from the most recent, most reliable official statistics—to both the promises and the difficulties confronting our Nation’s young people.

    America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 1998 updates information displayed in last year’s report and incorporates several improvements. For example, four indicators have been expanded to fill gaps identified in last year's report. Other indicators have been renamed to clarify their meaning. These changes implement many of the helpful comments and suggestions for improvements provided by users of the 1997 report.  (author introduction)

    This volume is the second annual report presenting an overview of the well-being of America’s children. Prepared by the Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, as required by President Clinton’s Executive Order No. 13045, the report is a product of collaborative efforts by 18 Federal agencies. Readers will find here an accessible compendium—drawn from the most recent, most reliable official statistics—to both the promises and the difficulties confronting our Nation’s young people.

    America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 1998 updates information displayed in last year’s report and incorporates several improvements. For example, four indicators have been expanded to fill gaps identified in last year's report. Other indicators have been renamed to clarify their meaning. These changes implement many of the helpful comments and suggestions for improvements provided by users of the 1997 report.  (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Gallagher, L. Jerome; Gallagher, Megan; Perese, Kevin; Schreiber, Susan; Watson, Keith
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and giving states flexibility to create new cash assistance programs for families with children. While the federal legislation establishes a variety of minimum requirements in some areas, there is considerable flexibility for states to exceed these minimum requirements and a number of areas are open to state discretion.

    This paper reviews some of the major decisions that states have made regarding the design of cash assistance programs under TANF, based on information available as of October 1997. This time period is appropriate because by October 1997 all state TANF plans had been approved and most states had enacted legislation in response to the new TANF block grant. Not all aspects of TANF programs are included in this review, however. State decisions concerning immunization requirements, treatment of interstate migrants, and teen parent school...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and giving states flexibility to create new cash assistance programs for families with children. While the federal legislation establishes a variety of minimum requirements in some areas, there is considerable flexibility for states to exceed these minimum requirements and a number of areas are open to state discretion.

    This paper reviews some of the major decisions that states have made regarding the design of cash assistance programs under TANF, based on information available as of October 1997. This time period is appropriate because by October 1997 all state TANF plans had been approved and most states had enacted legislation in response to the new TANF block grant. Not all aspects of TANF programs are included in this review, however. State decisions concerning immunization requirements, treatment of interstate migrants, and teen parent school attendance requirements are among those not included in this paper. We focus on some of the major decisions regarding program eligibility and benefits, time limits, and work requirements.

    The following section of the paper discusses the sources used for the descriptions of state programs. The remaining sections describe different aspects of state programs as follows:

    • Asset limits
    • Income eligibility limits
    • Diversion assistance payments
    • Eligibility of two-parent families
    • Definition of time limits
    • Exemptions from time limits
    • Extensions to time limits
    • Implementation dates of time limits
    • Work exemptions based on the age of youngest child
    • Work sanctions
    • Work requirement time limits
    • Benefit amounts
    • Earnings disregards
    • Family caps
    • Child support pass-through

    For each of these sections we describe briefly how these provisions were applied under the former AFDC program and under waivers, the changes made by PRWORA, and the decisions that states have made concerning each provision. The final section describes the potential for county variation within states. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara; Meyer, Daniel; Seltzer, Judith
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1998

    Over half of America's children will live apart from their fathers at some point as they grow up, many in the single-mother households that increasingly make up the nation's poor. Federal efforts to improve the collection of child support from fathers appear to have little effect on payments, and many critics have argued that forcing fathers to pay does more harm than good. Much of the uncertainty surrounding child support policies has stemmed from a lack of hard data on nonresident fathers. Fathers Under Fire presents the best available information on the financial and social circumstances of the men who are at the center of the debate. In this volume, social scientists and legal scholars explore the issues underlying the child support debate, chief among them on the potential repercussions of stronger enforcement.

    Who are nonresident fathers? This volume calls upon both empirical and theoretical data to describe them across a broad economic and social spectrum. Absentee fathers who do not pay child support are much more likely to be school dropouts and low earners than...

    Over half of America's children will live apart from their fathers at some point as they grow up, many in the single-mother households that increasingly make up the nation's poor. Federal efforts to improve the collection of child support from fathers appear to have little effect on payments, and many critics have argued that forcing fathers to pay does more harm than good. Much of the uncertainty surrounding child support policies has stemmed from a lack of hard data on nonresident fathers. Fathers Under Fire presents the best available information on the financial and social circumstances of the men who are at the center of the debate. In this volume, social scientists and legal scholars explore the issues underlying the child support debate, chief among them on the potential repercussions of stronger enforcement.

    Who are nonresident fathers? This volume calls upon both empirical and theoretical data to describe them across a broad economic and social spectrum. Absentee fathers who do not pay child support are much more likely to be school dropouts and low earners than fathers who pay, and nonresident fathers altogether earn less than resident fathers. Fathers who start new families are not significantly less likely to support previous children. But can we predict what would happen if the government were to impose more rigorous child support laws? The data in this volume offer a clearer understanding of the potential benefits and risks of such policies. In contrast to some fears, stronger enforcement is unlikely to push fathers toward. But it does seem to have more of an effect on whether some fathers remarry and become responsible for new families. In these cases, how are subsequent children affected by a father's pre-existing obligations? Should such fathers be allowed to reduce their child support orders in order to provide for their current families? Should child support guidelines permit modifications in the event of a father's changed financial circumstances? Should government enforce a father's right to see his children as well as his obligation to pay support? What can be done to help under- or unemployed fathers meet their payments? This volume provides the information and insight to answer these questions.

    The need to help children and reduce the public costs of welfare programs is clear, but the process of achieving these goals is more complex. Fathers Under Fire offers an indispensable resource to those searching for effective and equitable solutions to the problems of child support. (author abstract) 

    Table of Contents 

    Introduction - Irwin Garfinkel, Sara McLanahan, Daniel Meyer, and Judith Seltzer

    Part I - What are the Policies and who are the Fathers?

    Chapter 1: A Brief History of Child Support Policies in the United States - Irwin Garfinkel, Daniel Meyer, and Sara McLanahan

    Chapter 2: A Patchwork Portrait of Nonresident Fathers - Irwin Garfinkel, Sara McLanahan, and Thomas Hanson

    Part II - How Does Child Support Enforcement Affect Fathers?

    Chapter 3: The Effect of Child Support on the Economic Status of Nonresident Fathers - Daniel Meyer

    Chapter 4: Does Child Support Enforcement Policy Affect Male Labor Supply? - Richard Freeman and Jane Waldfogel 

    Chapter 5: Child Support and Fathers' Remarriage and Fertility - David Bloom, Cecilia Conrad, and Cynthia Miller

    Chapter 6: Will Child Support Enforcement Increase Father-Child Contact and Parental Conflict after Separation? - Judith Seltzer, Sara McLanahan, and Thomas Hanson

    Chapter 7: The Effects of Stronger Child Support Enforcement on Nonmarital Fertility - Anne Case

    Part III - Should we do more to Help Fathers? 

    Chapter 8: Programs to Increase Fathers' Access to their Children - Jessica Pearson and Nancy Thoennes

    Chapter 9: Low-Income Parents and the Parents' Fair Share Program: An Early Qualitative Look at Improving 

    Chapter 10: How should we think about Child Support Obligations? - Martha Minow

    Conclusion - Irwin Garfinkel, Sara McLanahan, Daniel Meyer, and Judith Seltzer

  • Individual Author: Vroman, Wayne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    One goal of welfare reform is to move larger numbers of welfare recipients into work. If the aims of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation are achieved, by 1998 more than a quarter of the roughly 4 million adults who received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) will be active labor market participants, and half are slated to join the workforce by 2002. Many, if not most, will no longer be receiving welfare benefits at that time.

    Low education and lack of work skills and experience put current and former welfare recipients at special risk of unemployment. The national unemployment rate for persons 16 and older in the labor force averaged only 4.9 percent in 1997, but former welfare recipients can be expected to have jobless rates that are twice the national average.

    Nonetheless, the anticipated increase in the unemployment pool resulting from welfare reform is modest. Because of low earnings and other factors, only a small fraction of adult welfare recipients who enter the labor market will become eligible for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits...

    One goal of welfare reform is to move larger numbers of welfare recipients into work. If the aims of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation are achieved, by 1998 more than a quarter of the roughly 4 million adults who received Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) will be active labor market participants, and half are slated to join the workforce by 2002. Many, if not most, will no longer be receiving welfare benefits at that time.

    Low education and lack of work skills and experience put current and former welfare recipients at special risk of unemployment. The national unemployment rate for persons 16 and older in the labor force averaged only 4.9 percent in 1997, but former welfare recipients can be expected to have jobless rates that are twice the national average.

    Nonetheless, the anticipated increase in the unemployment pool resulting from welfare reform is modest. Because of low earnings and other factors, only a small fraction of adult welfare recipients who enter the labor market will become eligible for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits under current rules. Moreover, neither federal nor state laws governing eligibility are likely to change in ways that will enhance access to unemployment benefits for unemployed former welfare recipients. Thus, these new workers’ impact on the UI system, in terms of added beneficiaries and costs, will be hardly noticeable. (author introduction)

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