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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Clagett, Craig A.
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1997

    In an effort to reevaluate employment preparation in community college curricula, a review of recent research was conducted to identify the most valued skills in today's workforce. Among the abilities desired by today's employers are: (1) knowing how to learn; (2) competence in reading, writing, and computation; (3) effective listening and oral communication skills; (4) adaptability through creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management with strong self esteem and initiative; (6) interpersonal skills; and (7) leadership effectiveness. This comprehensive skill set, once required only of managers, but now applying to all levels of employment, appeared in several employer surveys, with an additional emphasis on communication and computer/technical skills. (Author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

    In an effort to reevaluate employment preparation in community college curricula, a review of recent research was conducted to identify the most valued skills in today's workforce. Among the abilities desired by today's employers are: (1) knowing how to learn; (2) competence in reading, writing, and computation; (3) effective listening and oral communication skills; (4) adaptability through creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management with strong self esteem and initiative; (6) interpersonal skills; and (7) leadership effectiveness. This comprehensive skill set, once required only of managers, but now applying to all levels of employment, appeared in several employer surveys, with an additional emphasis on communication and computer/technical skills. (Author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

  • Individual Author: Cody, Scott; Trippe, Carole
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    This report presents the latest trends in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation rates. It adds one more year of information, 1995, to the series of reports on FSP participation rates based on March Current Population Survey (CPS) data for eligibles and FSP administrative data for participants. Participation rates are calculated as the percentage of the total eligible population that participate in the FSP. Although the report focuses on changes in rates from 1988 to 1995, it also examines longer-term trends beginning with 1976. Trends in aggregate rates and trends for subgroups of the eligible population are summarized in the text that follows and described fully in the body of this report. (author abstract)

    This report presents the latest trends in Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation rates. It adds one more year of information, 1995, to the series of reports on FSP participation rates based on March Current Population Survey (CPS) data for eligibles and FSP administrative data for participants. Participation rates are calculated as the percentage of the total eligible population that participate in the FSP. Although the report focuses on changes in rates from 1988 to 1995, it also examines longer-term trends beginning with 1976. Trends in aggregate rates and trends for subgroups of the eligible population are summarized in the text that follows and described fully in the body of this report. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Stavrianos, Michael
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    This report, part of the Food and Consumer Service’s series "Current Perspectives on Food Stamp Program Participation," presents the latest participation rates for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). The participation rate -- the proportion of those eligible for food stamps who actually apply for and receive benefits -- is a valuable policy tool that shows whether the program is reaching the intended population and which groups of the eligible population participate at higher or lower rates than other groups. Estimates of rates are based on Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data for eligibles and FSP administrative data for participants.

    The current report shows that in January 1994, rates remained at or near their highest point since the beginning of the series in 1985. Between January 1992 and January 1994, the FSP participation rate for eligible households held steady at 69 percent. Participating households received 81 percent of total potential food stamp benefits in January 1994, similar...

    This report, part of the Food and Consumer Service’s series "Current Perspectives on Food Stamp Program Participation," presents the latest participation rates for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). The participation rate -- the proportion of those eligible for food stamps who actually apply for and receive benefits -- is a valuable policy tool that shows whether the program is reaching the intended population and which groups of the eligible population participate at higher or lower rates than other groups. Estimates of rates are based on Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data for eligibles and FSP administrative data for participants.

    The current report shows that in January 1994, rates remained at or near their highest point since the beginning of the series in 1985. Between January 1992 and January 1994, the FSP participation rate for eligible households held steady at 69 percent. Participating households received 81 percent of total potential food stamp benefits in January 1994, similar to the 82 percent in January 1992. Although the overall household participation rate did not change, the participation rate for one-person households increased while the rate for larger households fell. Consequently, the person participation rate declined slightly, from 74 percent in 1992 to 71 percent in 1994. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Frye, Judith; Caspar, Emma
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Wisconsin’s Learnfare program is intended to encourage enrollment, regular attendance, and high school graduation or the completion of high school equivalency programs among 13- to 19-year-old recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). These teenagers, who can be either dependent children or parents, risk losing part or all of their families’ monthly AFDC grants if they do not maintain enrollment and acceptable school attendance. In addition, the program offers participating families assistance in identifying and correcting the causes of attendance problems, and services such as day care for the teenagers’ children, transportation, and referral to alternative education programs. The program was administered by the Department of Health and Social Services until July 1996, when that responsibility was transferred to the new Department of Workforce Development.

    This evaluation report describes the effects of Learnfare on the school participation and school completion of teenagers and on their families’ public assistance...

    Wisconsin’s Learnfare program is intended to encourage enrollment, regular attendance, and high school graduation or the completion of high school equivalency programs among 13- to 19-year-old recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). These teenagers, who can be either dependent children or parents, risk losing part or all of their families’ monthly AFDC grants if they do not maintain enrollment and acceptable school attendance. In addition, the program offers participating families assistance in identifying and correcting the causes of attendance problems, and services such as day care for the teenagers’ children, transportation, and referral to alternative education programs. The program was administered by the Department of Health and Social Services until July 1996, when that responsibility was transferred to the new Department of Workforce Development.

    This evaluation report describes the effects of Learnfare on the school participation and school completion of teenagers and on their families’ public assistance payments. Because individuals entered the sample at different times, some were in the study for longer than others. All sample members were tracked for at least four semesters after introduction to Learnfare. Six semesters of data are reported for those who entered the sample earliest. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hamilton, Gayle; Brock, Thomas; Farrell, Mary; Friedlander, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; Hunter-Manns, JoAnna; Walter, Johanna; Weisman, Joanna
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Welfare reform has been near the top of the American political agenda for almost a decade, a reflection of persistent dissatisfaction with the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. At the center of the reform discussion is the bedrock value of work. AFDC was created in 1935 primarily to ensure that women whose husbands had died or were disabled could care for their children without being compelled to go to work. By the end of the 1980s, however, most mothers were in the workforce, including mothers of young children, and the Depression-era commitment to helping mothers stay at home was considered obsolete. The key welfare reform question then became how best to move AFDC recipients into the workforce, toward self-sufficiency, and out of poverty — still an immensely important question.

    States have traditionally responded to this question by implementing one of two different welfare-to-work program strategies. The first, often referred to as the "labor force attachment" (LFA) strategy, emphasizes placing people into jobs...

    Welfare reform has been near the top of the American political agenda for almost a decade, a reflection of persistent dissatisfaction with the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. At the center of the reform discussion is the bedrock value of work. AFDC was created in 1935 primarily to ensure that women whose husbands had died or were disabled could care for their children without being compelled to go to work. By the end of the 1980s, however, most mothers were in the workforce, including mothers of young children, and the Depression-era commitment to helping mothers stay at home was considered obsolete. The key welfare reform question then became how best to move AFDC recipients into the workforce, toward self-sufficiency, and out of poverty — still an immensely important question.

    States have traditionally responded to this question by implementing one of two different welfare-to-work program strategies. The first, often referred to as the "labor force attachment" (LFA) strategy, emphasizes placing people into jobs quickly, even at low wages, reflecting a view that the workplace is where welfare recipients can best build their work habits and skills. The second, often called the "human capital development" (HCD) strategy, emphasizes education and training as a precursor to employment, based on the belief that the required skill levels for many jobs are rising and that an investment in the "human capital" of welfare recipients will allow them to obtain better and more secure jobs. Although each strategy has elements of the other LFA programs include education and training components and HCD programs include job search components the two approaches both convey different messages to welfare recipients about the best route to self-sufficiency and emphasize different program components.

    This report examines the relative strengths and limitations of particular versions of the LFA and HCD program strategies. It includes the findings from one part of a multi-year, seven-site evaluation and draws on the advantages of a unique experimental design implemented in three of those seven sites. The evaluation had its origins in the Family Support Act (FSA) of 1988, which marked a major shift in the philosophy of welfare by establishing a system of mutual obligation — between government and recipients — within the AFDC entitlement structure. As part of the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program created by the FSA, welfare recipients had to look for and accept a job or participate in employment-promoting activities such as education, vocational skills training, or temporary, unpaid work experience provided through the welfare department; if they refused, they risked losing part of their cash (and, in some cases, Food Stamps and Medicaid) benefits. In turn, government was to provide a wider array of services and supports to a broader share of the welfare population than it ever had before — all with the purpose of equipping welfare recipients for work. More recently, the emphasis of welfare reform has again shifted: Recipients have stronger obligations to meet, states have a commanding and more flexible role, and the receipt of federal benefits is now subject to a time limit. Work, however, is still key. But what is the best way to make sure that welfare recipients who can work actually find and keep jobs? Various responses to that question are currently shaping federal and state welfare reform initiatives, and this report takes a preliminary look at two of them — the LFA and HCD approaches described above. (author abstract)

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