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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Kramer, Fredrica D.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    This publication, one of a series designed to help policymakers and TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) agency personnel, offers a baseline for understanding the challenge of serving persons who are being forced off welfare rolls but who are hard to place in employment. The following topics are covered: (1) policy issues (who should be considered hard to place?; interaction of work requirements and time limits for hard-to-place); (2) research findings (prevalence of potential employment barriers; relationship to work); (3) program options (assessment tools; staffing; service options; funding options); and (4) innovative practices (special needs; post-employment strategies; and comprehensive models). A list of 14 resources contacts and 18 publications is included. (author abstract)

    This publication, one of a series designed to help policymakers and TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) agency personnel, offers a baseline for understanding the challenge of serving persons who are being forced off welfare rolls but who are hard to place in employment. The following topics are covered: (1) policy issues (who should be considered hard to place?; interaction of work requirements and time limits for hard-to-place); (2) research findings (prevalence of potential employment barriers; relationship to work); (3) program options (assessment tools; staffing; service options; funding options); and (4) innovative practices (special needs; post-employment strategies; and comprehensive models). A list of 14 resources contacts and 18 publications is included. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Lino, Mark
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    A large proportion of the poor in the United States is composed of single mothers and their children. Many of these women receive partial child support payment or none at all. Welfare reform legislation has, therefore, focused on child support payment enforcement. However, the economic well-being of single-parent families can be improved only if child support payments are paid on a regular basis and reflect the cost of raising children. Comparing USDA estimates of expenditures on children with average full child support payments, which represent average child support awards, shows that these full payments cover a small proportion of the total cost of raising children. Therefore, to improve the economic well-being of single-mother families, child support enforcement plus child support awards that reflect the cost of raising children are needed. (author abstract)

     

    A large proportion of the poor in the United States is composed of single mothers and their children. Many of these women receive partial child support payment or none at all. Welfare reform legislation has, therefore, focused on child support payment enforcement. However, the economic well-being of single-parent families can be improved only if child support payments are paid on a regular basis and reflect the cost of raising children. Comparing USDA estimates of expenditures on children with average full child support payments, which represent average child support awards, shows that these full payments cover a small proportion of the total cost of raising children. Therefore, to improve the economic well-being of single-mother families, child support enforcement plus child support awards that reflect the cost of raising children are needed. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Thompson, Terri S.; Holcomb. Pamela A.; Loprest, Pamela; Brennan, Kathleen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    The focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) on work and temporary cash assistance is likely to have significant implications for welfare recipients with disabilities and individuals who care for recipients with disabilities (caregivers). Prior to welfare reform, disabled recipients and caregivers were generally exempt from participating in welfare-to-work programs and cash assistance was available for an unlimited period. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which states have used the flexibility provided under PRWORA to change their welfare-to-work policies as applied to individuals with disabilities and caregivers. States' decisions about policy changes must be balanced against two key challenges presented by welfare reform:

    1. States must consider the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities while meeting the work participation and other requirements established in federal law. States now have the latitude to design their welfare-to-work programs in ways they believe will best meet...

    The focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) on work and temporary cash assistance is likely to have significant implications for welfare recipients with disabilities and individuals who care for recipients with disabilities (caregivers). Prior to welfare reform, disabled recipients and caregivers were generally exempt from participating in welfare-to-work programs and cash assistance was available for an unlimited period. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which states have used the flexibility provided under PRWORA to change their welfare-to-work policies as applied to individuals with disabilities and caregivers. States' decisions about policy changes must be balanced against two key challenges presented by welfare reform:

    1. States must consider the diverse needs of individuals with disabilities while meeting the work participation and other requirements established in federal law. States now have the latitude to design their welfare-to-work programs in ways they believe will best meet the needs of their clients. States may also decide who among the welfare population will be required to participate in these programs. However, states are required to meet increasing work participation requirements or face financial penalties. Additionally, states must continue to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and other civil rights statutes.

    2. The imposition of state and federal time limits increases the immediacy of welfare recipients' need for help in overcoming their barriers to work and self-sufficiency. Welfare agencies have not historically been required to focus on the needs of many clients with serious barriers to employment or self-sufficiency—including individuals with disabilities—and now must develop service strategies that achieve this end within 60 months (or less in some states).

    This study represents a first attempt to provide a nationwide overview of welfare-to-work policies for individuals with disabilities and caregivers. To obtain this overview of state policies, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) plans and other relevant policy documents were reviewed and conversations were held with welfare agency staff in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report does not provide detail on local-level implementation or local pilot projects. Additional detail about policy implementation will be obtained through case studies of a small number of policy approaches to be conducted in the second phase of this project.

    The major findings of this report are:

    • The majority of states have changed their work participation policies to require participation among some individuals with disabilities and caregivers who were previously exempt.
    • States are in the early stages of making decisions about who should be required to participate in welfare-to-work services, who should be expected to move off welfare within 60 months, and what services will best help recipients achieve this objective.

    (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Homes for the Homeless & The Institute for Children and Poverty
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

     In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the United States is composed of a single mother, about 30 years old, with between two and three children averaging 5 years of age. African Americans are heavily over-represented among homeless families. Rates of educational attainment among homeless parents vary by city, but in 9 of the 10 cities, homeless parents over age 25 have education levels beneath those of the general population. This disparity grows even wider when all homeless parents, regardless of age, are taken into account. While 75% of persons 25 and older in the general population have completed high school, only 68% of homeless parents 25 and older have finished high school, and only 63% of all homeless parents have completed high school. In New York, less than half (47%) of...

     In 1997, the Institute for Children and Poverty of Homes for the Homeless joined with more than 58 organizations from 10 cities across the country to develop a national snapshot of family homelessness in the United States. Nearly 800 families were surveyed. This report presents the results of this research. The typical homeless family in the United States is composed of a single mother, about 30 years old, with between two and three children averaging 5 years of age. African Americans are heavily over-represented among homeless families. Rates of educational attainment among homeless parents vary by city, but in 9 of the 10 cities, homeless parents over age 25 have education levels beneath those of the general population. This disparity grows even wider when all homeless parents, regardless of age, are taken into account. While 75% of persons 25 and older in the general population have completed high school, only 68% of homeless parents 25 and older have finished high school, and only 63% of all homeless parents have completed high school. In New York, less than half (47%) of homeless parents have completed high school. Most homeless parents are currently unemployed, although 72% have some work experience. The greatest single determinant of employment for these parents is education. Employment alone, however, is no guarantee that a homeless parent can support a family. Many factors contribute to undereducation, but teen pregnancy ranks among the leading explanations. The prevalence of undereducation, unemployment, and long-term welfare dependence among homeless families is dramatic, if not surprising, given findings from previous research. Nineteen percent of homeless parents had graduated from high school or earned their General Education Diplomas. Issues of education and employment clearly lie at the roots of homelessness for many families, yet no one explanation can account for the multiple and complex routes to homelessness among families. Homeless parents understand the importance of education, with over 72% recognizing that a high school diploma is necessary for independence; but the bridge between belief and action in limited, with only 19% taking steps by participating in educational programs. Local data on homeless families are presented for each of the 10 cities studied. A discussion of secondary data sources is included. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1998

    This statute consolidated and coordinated employment, training, literacy, and vocational rehabilitation programs. It reformed Federal employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs, creating an integrated, “one-stop” system of workforce investment and education activities for adults and youth. It also fully incorporated and amended the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933, which had created a national employment system.

    Public Law No. 105-220 (1998).

     

    This statute consolidated and coordinated employment, training, literacy, and vocational rehabilitation programs. It reformed Federal employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs, creating an integrated, “one-stop” system of workforce investment and education activities for adults and youth. It also fully incorporated and amended the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933, which had created a national employment system.

    Public Law No. 105-220 (1998).

     

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