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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Gundersen, Craig; LeBlanc, Michael; Kuhn, Betsey
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) dramatically transformed and continues to transform the food assistance landscape in the United States. The Act cut more funds from the Food Stamp Program than it did from any other program, through reductions in benefits per person and restrictions in eligibility. Despite these cuts, food stamps now have a more prominent role in the post-welfare reform social safety net because the largest cash-assistance entitlement program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), was replaced with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, a nonentitlement program. This leaves the Food Stamp Program as one of the only remaining entitlement programs available to almost all low-income households. (Author abstract)

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) dramatically transformed and continues to transform the food assistance landscape in the United States. The Act cut more funds from the Food Stamp Program than it did from any other program, through reductions in benefits per person and restrictions in eligibility. Despite these cuts, food stamps now have a more prominent role in the post-welfare reform social safety net because the largest cash-assistance entitlement program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), was replaced with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, a nonentitlement program. This leaves the Food Stamp Program as one of the only remaining entitlement programs available to almost all low-income households. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hellegers, Adam
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    The author's proposal is based on an analysis of the statutory undergirdings and litigative history behind HUD's 'one-strike' rule, a policy which encourages local public housing authorities to empower themselves to terminate a tenancy as a result of the criminal activity of a public housing tenant, any member of such tenant's household, or any guest or person under the tenant's 'control.' Having concluded that the legislation authorizing this policy does not specify whether such tenant need even be aware of such criminal activity to trigger lease termination, and that most courts are restrained from proffering any interpretation beyond whether the strictures imposed by the policy are 'reasonable,' the author proposes that the residents of each local public housing authority be empowered to determine how far 'one-strike' should reach in their community. The article recommends that tenant-elected committees (which already exist in most public housing projects) convene to decide, within broad constitutional parameters,...

    The author's proposal is based on an analysis of the statutory undergirdings and litigative history behind HUD's 'one-strike' rule, a policy which encourages local public housing authorities to empower themselves to terminate a tenancy as a result of the criminal activity of a public housing tenant, any member of such tenant's household, or any guest or person under the tenant's 'control.' Having concluded that the legislation authorizing this policy does not specify whether such tenant need even be aware of such criminal activity to trigger lease termination, and that most courts are restrained from proffering any interpretation beyond whether the strictures imposed by the policy are 'reasonable,' the author proposes that the residents of each local public housing authority be empowered to determine how far 'one-strike' should reach in their community. The article recommends that tenant-elected committees (which already exist in most public housing projects) convene to decide, within broad constitutional parameters, whether these 'innocent' evictions are necessary in their neighborhood, how far the policy should extend (the relationship to the criminal actor, the location of the activity, and the tenant's knowledge of or consent to such activity) and how to divine the proper balance (if any is to be had) between community safety and civil liberty. HUD's marketing materials and regulatory initiatives often promote self-sufficiency and citizen participation as crucial components of a stable and upwardly mobile public housing community; the 'one-strike' rule presents a unique opportunity to do more than offer lip service to this idea, and place this controversy into the hands of those who have the most vested interest in its resolution. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rose, Donald
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes...

    This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes <50% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are higher for adult women and elderly individuals from food-insufficient households. Preschoolers from food-insufficient households do not consume significantly lower amounts than those from food-sufficient households, but mean intakes for the rest of members in those very same households are significantly lower for the food insufficient. This research highlights the importance of food insecurity and hunger indicators, further validates the use of self-reported measures and points to areas of need for future research and interventions. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zimmermann, Wendy; Tumlin, Karen C.
    Reference Type: Report, Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1999

    For immigrants, the passage of federal welfare reform meant much more than ending the entitlement to cash assistance. The law restricted noncitizen eligibility for a wide range of public programs, including Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), food stamps, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Medicaid, and it gave states broad new authority to set social welfare policy for immigrants.&#13;
    &#13;
    Since the law's enactment, the President and Congress have restored many, but not all, of the benefits from which immigrants were originally barred. Many children, elderly, and disabled immigrants have had their eligibility for food stamps and SSI restored. But most working-age adults remain ineligible for food stamps and most immigrants entering the United States after the law's passage are ineligible for the major federal assistance programs for at least five years.&#13;
    &#13;
    Although the Congress has gone a long way toward undoing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act's (PRWORA)...

    For immigrants, the passage of federal welfare reform meant much more than ending the entitlement to cash assistance. The law restricted noncitizen eligibility for a wide range of public programs, including Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), food stamps, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Medicaid, and it gave states broad new authority to set social welfare policy for immigrants.&#13;
    &#13;
    Since the law's enactment, the President and Congress have restored many, but not all, of the benefits from which immigrants were originally barred. Many children, elderly, and disabled immigrants have had their eligibility for food stamps and SSI restored. But most working-age adults remain ineligible for food stamps and most immigrants entering the United States after the law's passage are ineligible for the major federal assistance programs for at least five years.&#13;
    &#13;
    Although the Congress has gone a long way toward undoing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act's (PRWORA) immigrant restrictions, it has left another of the law's legacies intact: the devolution of authority from the federal government to the states to determine immigrants' eligibility for public benefits. Before PRWORA's passage, the federal government had sole responsibility for deciding which immigrants had access to which benefits. In fact, the Supreme Court had ruled that states could not even bar legal noncitizens from their own benefit programs. The new federal welfare law, however, allows states to bar noncitizens from their own cash and medical assistance programs and from TANF and Medicaid, which are funded with federal dollars. By limiting immigrants' access to federal assistance and vesting states with the authority to set eligibility rules for immigrants, the federal law implicitly gave states another choice: whether to create new state-funded substitute benefits for immigrants.&#13;
    &#13;
    In many ways, then, welfare reform's immigrant provisions represent a new experiment in federalism and, as a result, raise a number of far-reaching questions. For example, since the federal government determines how many and which immigrants are admitted to the United States, does the federal government have a special obligation to provide for them? What are the implications of this new devolution given that most of the immigrant population is concentrated in only a handful of states? Is the federal goal of promoting self-sufficiency achieved by devolving eligibility decisions to the states? (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ong, Paul; Blumenberg, Evelyn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Congress dramatically altered the welfare system. The new legislation limits cash support to welfare recipients, mandates strong work requirements, and gives states more discretion over welfare program design. With its emphasis on reducing the welfare rolls, state welfare agencies must establish programs to transition recipients into the labor market or else risk dramatic increases in poverty. Access to transportation affects welfare recipients' ability to find and retain employment and, therefore, must be one component of a successful welfare-to-work strategy. The need for good transportation policy is anchored in the dramatic changes in the welfare system, the geographic location of jobs and welfare recipients within metropolitan areas, and limitations with our existing public transportation system. These topics are addressed in the subsequent three sections of this paper. In the conclusion, we present a series of policy recommendations; these include recommendations specific...

    With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Congress dramatically altered the welfare system. The new legislation limits cash support to welfare recipients, mandates strong work requirements, and gives states more discretion over welfare program design. With its emphasis on reducing the welfare rolls, state welfare agencies must establish programs to transition recipients into the labor market or else risk dramatic increases in poverty. Access to transportation affects welfare recipients' ability to find and retain employment and, therefore, must be one component of a successful welfare-to-work strategy. The need for good transportation policy is anchored in the dramatic changes in the welfare system, the geographic location of jobs and welfare recipients within metropolitan areas, and limitations with our existing public transportation system. These topics are addressed in the subsequent three sections of this paper. In the conclusion, we present a series of policy recommendations; these include recommendations specific to transportation policy as well as housing and local economic development policies that help to improve recipients' geographic access to employment. (Author abstract)

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