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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Bloom, Dan
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Passage of the landmark federal welfare reform legislation in 1996 presented states and localities with a set of dramatic and far-reaching choices about how to restructure the public assistance programs that serve some of the nation's most vulnerable families. Published as part of MDRC's ReWORKing Welfare series, this how-to guide draws on the results of dozens of rigorous MDRC studies of state and local innovations that preceded this major shift in national social policy. After AFDC offers policymakers valuable lessons about program approaches that aim to promote work and self-sufficiency, reduce dependency, and improve the well-being of welfare recipients and their children. It reviews current information about four key approaches to welfare reform — welfare-to-work programs, mandatory work programs, policies to change financial incentives, and time limits — and discusses the interactions among these approaches. While the guide does not aim to address the full range of issues that may be involved in a state's welfare reform plans, it identifies broad lessons and trade-offs for...

    Passage of the landmark federal welfare reform legislation in 1996 presented states and localities with a set of dramatic and far-reaching choices about how to restructure the public assistance programs that serve some of the nation's most vulnerable families. Published as part of MDRC's ReWORKing Welfare series, this how-to guide draws on the results of dozens of rigorous MDRC studies of state and local innovations that preceded this major shift in national social policy. After AFDC offers policymakers valuable lessons about program approaches that aim to promote work and self-sufficiency, reduce dependency, and improve the well-being of welfare recipients and their children. It reviews current information about four key approaches to welfare reform — welfare-to-work programs, mandatory work programs, policies to change financial incentives, and time limits — and discusses the interactions among these approaches. While the guide does not aim to address the full range of issues that may be involved in a state's welfare reform plans, it identifies broad lessons and trade-offs for states and localities to consider in designing reforms. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Long, Sharon K.; Clark, Sandra J.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) eliminates federal child care entitlements and consolidates the major sources of federal child care subsidies for low-income children into a single block grant to states. The new block grant provides the potential for substantially greater child care funding depending on the options adopted by states. This analysis examines the funding options states have under PRWORA and the decisions states must make regarding their need for child care assistance. (author abstract)

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) eliminates federal child care entitlements and consolidates the major sources of federal child care subsidies for low-income children into a single block grant to states. The new block grant provides the potential for substantially greater child care funding depending on the options adopted by states. This analysis examines the funding options states have under PRWORA and the decisions states must make regarding their need for child care assistance. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hardy, Janet B. ; Shapiro, Sam ; Astone, Nan M. ; Miller, Therese L. ; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne ; Hilton, Sterling C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Objectives. Data from recent interviews with 1758 inner-city children, born between 1960 to 1965 and followed with their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study to age 27 to 33 years, were used to address two related questions. 1) Is maternal age, across the reproductive age range, a determinant of child's adult outcome? and 2) Do covariates of maternal age at delivery reduce or eliminate the effect of maternal age on child's adult outcome?

    Methods. An intergenerational life course model of development identified significant maternal and child characteristics at birth associated with the child's self-sufficient outcomes in adulthood: education (more than or equal to a high school diploma); financial independence of public support; and delay of first birth until age 20 or older. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify independent relationships between dependent and independent variables and to adjust the outcomes to compensate for the effect of possible confounding of maternal age at delivery by maternal education,...

    Objectives. Data from recent interviews with 1758 inner-city children, born between 1960 to 1965 and followed with their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study to age 27 to 33 years, were used to address two related questions. 1) Is maternal age, across the reproductive age range, a determinant of child's adult outcome? and 2) Do covariates of maternal age at delivery reduce or eliminate the effect of maternal age on child's adult outcome?

    Methods. An intergenerational life course model of development identified significant maternal and child characteristics at birth associated with the child's self-sufficient outcomes in adulthood: education (more than or equal to a high school diploma); financial independence of public support; and delay of first birth until age 20 or older. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify independent relationships between dependent and independent variables and to adjust the outcomes to compensate for the effect of possible confounding of maternal age at delivery by maternal education, parity, poverty status, and the child's race and gender.

    Results.  Each covariate was independently associated with maternal age at delivery. Adjustment for their effects reduced, but did not eliminate, the association between maternal age at birth and the child's outcome at age 27 to 33 years. As a group, children of the oldest mothers (≥25 years of age) had the most favorable outcomes, and those of teenage mothers (<20 years of age) had the least favorable outcomes; 22% of daughters and 6% of sons of the oldest mothers versus 38% and 18%, respectively, of the youngest mothers became teenage parents.

    Conclusion.  The mother's age at delivery is an independent determinant of the child's adult status. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Sandefur, Gary D. ; Wells, Thomas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    This paper examines the effects of family structure on educational attainment after controlling for common family influences, observed and unobserved, using data from siblings. The use of sibling data permits us to examine whether the apparent effects of family structure are due to unmeasured characteristics of families that are common to siblings. The data come from pairs of siblings in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979–1992. The results suggest that taking into account the unmeasured family characteristics yields estimates of the effects of family structure on educational attainment that are smaller, but still statistically significant, than estimates based on analyses that do not take unmeasured family influences into account. (author abstract)

    This paper examines the effects of family structure on educational attainment after controlling for common family influences, observed and unobserved, using data from siblings. The use of sibling data permits us to examine whether the apparent effects of family structure are due to unmeasured characteristics of families that are common to siblings. The data come from pairs of siblings in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979–1992. The results suggest that taking into account the unmeasured family characteristics yields estimates of the effects of family structure on educational attainment that are smaller, but still statistically significant, than estimates based on analyses that do not take unmeasured family influences into account. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Page-Adams, Deborah; Sherraden, Michael
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Asset building is helping impoverished families save for education, home ownership, microenterprise, and other community revitalization purposes. These community development programs are built in part on the idea that assets have multiple positive effects on well-being. A system of individual development accounts is often used to structure and subsidize asset accumulation. Studies that evaluate the implementation, performance, and effects of asset building will be critical in assessing the potential of community development based on special savings accounts. This article summarizes findings from studies addressing the effects of assets on personal well-being, economic security, civic behavior, women's status, and children's well-being. Implications for demonstration and evaluation of asset-based community revitalization initiatives are discussed. (Author abstract)

    Asset building is helping impoverished families save for education, home ownership, microenterprise, and other community revitalization purposes. These community development programs are built in part on the idea that assets have multiple positive effects on well-being. A system of individual development accounts is often used to structure and subsidize asset accumulation. Studies that evaluate the implementation, performance, and effects of asset building will be critical in assessing the potential of community development based on special savings accounts. This article summarizes findings from studies addressing the effects of assets on personal well-being, economic security, civic behavior, women's status, and children's well-being. Implications for demonstration and evaluation of asset-based community revitalization initiatives are discussed. (Author abstract)

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