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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Miller, Paul E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) is an alternative to the Food Stamp program on Montana's seven Indian reservations. FDPIR is the main anti-hunger program on these reservations which have poverty rates, on average, that are three times higher than the state average. Of the 1,356 FDPIR households studied on the seven reservations, 56% have experienced hunger, as measured on a five-item index. Six out of 10 households rely on FDPIR as their main or only source of food. Any reductions in FDPIR that might result from federal welfare reform initiatives will cause increases in hunger on all reservations, especially among families with young children. (Author abstract)

    The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) is an alternative to the Food Stamp program on Montana's seven Indian reservations. FDPIR is the main anti-hunger program on these reservations which have poverty rates, on average, that are three times higher than the state average. Of the 1,356 FDPIR households studied on the seven reservations, 56% have experienced hunger, as measured on a five-item index. Six out of 10 households rely on FDPIR as their main or only source of food. Any reductions in FDPIR that might result from federal welfare reform initiatives will cause increases in hunger on all reservations, especially among families with young children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Long, Sharon K.; Kirby, Gretchen G.; Kurka, Robin; Boots, Shelley Waters
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) fundamentally changed federal child care assistance programs for low-income families. The legislation eliminated federal child care entitlements and consolidated the major sources of federal child care subsidies for low-income children into a single block grant to states— the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF). That block grant program gives states greater flexibility in designing their child care assistance programs, providing an opportunity to streamline the complex child care system that was in place before PRWORA, and to design a system of assistance that better meets the states' child care needs and objectives. This report describes the child care assistance system in place just before PRWORA and provides some early indications of how states will use the increased freedom of the CCDF to develop new systems of assistance. This information is particularly useful in light of recent proposals by the President and Congress to expand federal child care assistance further. The report begins...

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) fundamentally changed federal child care assistance programs for low-income families. The legislation eliminated federal child care entitlements and consolidated the major sources of federal child care subsidies for low-income children into a single block grant to states— the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF). That block grant program gives states greater flexibility in designing their child care assistance programs, providing an opportunity to streamline the complex child care system that was in place before PRWORA, and to design a system of assistance that better meets the states' child care needs and objectives. This report describes the child care assistance system in place just before PRWORA and provides some early indications of how states will use the increased freedom of the CCDF to develop new systems of assistance. This information is particularly useful in light of recent proposals by the President and Congress to expand federal child care assistance further. The report begins with an overview of changes in the federal child care programs under PRWORA and the implications of those changes for child care funding in the states. It then outlines the opportunities for states to improve the administration of child care assistance, the choices that states now have in program design that affect program eligibility and program costs, and the interaction and possibilities for collaboration between child care and early childhood education assistance programs. The final section of the report is the authors' conclusions. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Greenberg, Mark H.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), states have broad discretion in using their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) dollars and state maintenance of effort dollars. A state wishing to do so can use this discretion to expand the availability of child care assistance to low-income families. States have multiple options: a state can directly spend TANF dollars on child care; can transfer TANF funds to the Child Care and Development Fund; can transfer TANF funds to the Title XX Social Services Block Grant; can (to at least some extent) spend Welfare-to-Work grant dollars on child care; and can spend state “maintenance of effort” funds for child care. The array of options can sometimes be confusing because different consequences attach to each choice. This document summarizes the choices and their consequences. (author introduction)

    Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), states have broad discretion in using their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) dollars and state maintenance of effort dollars. A state wishing to do so can use this discretion to expand the availability of child care assistance to low-income families. States have multiple options: a state can directly spend TANF dollars on child care; can transfer TANF funds to the Child Care and Development Fund; can transfer TANF funds to the Title XX Social Services Block Grant; can (to at least some extent) spend Welfare-to-Work grant dollars on child care; and can spend state “maintenance of effort” funds for child care. The array of options can sometimes be confusing because different consequences attach to each choice. This document summarizes the choices and their consequences. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Shinn, Marybeth; Weitzman, Beth C.; Stojanovic, Daniela; Knickman, James R.; Jiménez, Lucila; Duchon, Lisa; James, Susan; Krantz, David H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined predictors of entry into shelter and subsequent housing stability for a cohort of families receiving public assistance in New York City.

    METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 266 families as they requested shelter and with a comparison sample of 298 families selected at random from the welfare caseload. Respondents were reinterviewed 5 years later. Families with prior history of shelter use were excluded from the follow-up study.

    RESULTS: Demographic characteristics and housing conditions were the most important risk factors for shelter entry; enduring poverty and disruptive social experiences also contributed. Five years later, four fifths of sheltered families had their own apartment. Receipt of subsidized housing was the primary predictor of housing stability among formerly homeless families (odds ratio [OR] = 20.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.9, 42.9).

    CONCLUSIONS: Housing subsidies are critical to ending homelessness among families. (Author abstract)

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined predictors of entry into shelter and subsequent housing stability for a cohort of families receiving public assistance in New York City.

    METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 266 families as they requested shelter and with a comparison sample of 298 families selected at random from the welfare caseload. Respondents were reinterviewed 5 years later. Families with prior history of shelter use were excluded from the follow-up study.

    RESULTS: Demographic characteristics and housing conditions were the most important risk factors for shelter entry; enduring poverty and disruptive social experiences also contributed. Five years later, four fifths of sheltered families had their own apartment. Receipt of subsidized housing was the primary predictor of housing stability among formerly homeless families (odds ratio [OR] = 20.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.9, 42.9).

    CONCLUSIONS: Housing subsidies are critical to ending homelessness among families. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Armott, Richard
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1998

    The spatial mismatch hypothesis is that "Serious limitations on black residential choice, combined with the steady dispersal of jobs from central cities, are responsible for the low rates of employment and low earnings of Afro-American workers" (Kain, 1994, p. 371). Despite a wealth of related empirical studies, there has been little work formalising the hypothesis. This paper presents a trade-theoretic model, with three regions (downtown, suburbia and the rest of the world), four goods (a tradable home good, untraded services, a tradable foreign good and land), and two factors (skilled and unskilled workers). Blacks are constrained to live downtown but by incurring commuting costs can work in suburbia. Several exogenous changes are considered (for example a fall in transport costs between suburbia and the rest of the world) which may lead simultaneously to a fall in the downtown unskilled wage and to job suburbanisation, and which therefore provide a theoretical basis for the hypothesis. (Author abstract)

    The spatial mismatch hypothesis is that "Serious limitations on black residential choice, combined with the steady dispersal of jobs from central cities, are responsible for the low rates of employment and low earnings of Afro-American workers" (Kain, 1994, p. 371). Despite a wealth of related empirical studies, there has been little work formalising the hypothesis. This paper presents a trade-theoretic model, with three regions (downtown, suburbia and the rest of the world), four goods (a tradable home good, untraded services, a tradable foreign good and land), and two factors (skilled and unskilled workers). Blacks are constrained to live downtown but by incurring commuting costs can work in suburbia. Several exogenous changes are considered (for example a fall in transport costs between suburbia and the rest of the world) which may lead simultaneously to a fall in the downtown unskilled wage and to job suburbanisation, and which therefore provide a theoretical basis for the hypothesis. (Author abstract)

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