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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1975

    This statute amended the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Acts. Most notably, it took pilot programs for the School Breakfast Program and the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and made them permanent. It also extended those programs to cover people who had not been previously eligible.

    Public Law No. 94-105 (1975).

    This statute amended the National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Acts. Most notably, it took pilot programs for the School Breakfast Program and the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and made them permanent. It also extended those programs to cover people who had not been previously eligible.

    Public Law No. 94-105 (1975).

  • Individual Author: Okun, Arthur M.
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1975

    Contemporary American society has the look of a split-level structure. Its political and social institutions distribute rights and privileges universally and proclaim the equality of all citizens. Yet economic institutions, with efficiency as their guiding principle, create disparities among citizens in living standards and material welfare. This mixture of equal rights and unequal economic status breeds tensions between the political principles of democracy and the economic principles of capitalism. Whenever the wealthy try for extra helpings of supposedly equal rights, and whenever the workings of the market deny anyone a minimum standard of living, "dollars transgress on rights"—in the author's phrase.

    In this revised and expanded version of the Godkin Lectures presented at the John F. Kennedy School at Harvard University in April 1974, Arthur M. Okun explores the conflicts that arise when society's desire to reduce inequality would impair economic efficiency, confronting policymakers with "the big tradeoff."

    Other economic systems have attempted to solve this...

    Contemporary American society has the look of a split-level structure. Its political and social institutions distribute rights and privileges universally and proclaim the equality of all citizens. Yet economic institutions, with efficiency as their guiding principle, create disparities among citizens in living standards and material welfare. This mixture of equal rights and unequal economic status breeds tensions between the political principles of democracy and the economic principles of capitalism. Whenever the wealthy try for extra helpings of supposedly equal rights, and whenever the workings of the market deny anyone a minimum standard of living, "dollars transgress on rights"—in the author's phrase.

    In this revised and expanded version of the Godkin Lectures presented at the John F. Kennedy School at Harvard University in April 1974, Arthur M. Okun explores the conflicts that arise when society's desire to reduce inequality would impair economic efficiency, confronting policymakers with "the big tradeoff."

    Other economic systems have attempted to solve this problem; but the best of socialist experiments have achieved a greater degree of equality than our mixed capitalist democracy only at heavy costs in efficiency, and dictatorial governments have reached heights of efficiency only by rigidly repressing their citizenry.

    In contrast, our basic system emerges as a viable, if uneasy, compromise in which the market has its place and democratic institutions keep it in check. But within the existing system there are ways to gain more of one good thing at a lower cost in terms of the other. In Okun's view, society's concern for human dignity can be directed at reducing the economic deprivation that stains the record of American democracy—through progressive taxation, transfer payments, job programs, broadening equality of opportunity, eliminating racial and sexual discrimination, and lowering barriers to access to capital. (publisher abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1974

    This statute created the Community Development Block Grant program merging numerous categorical programs into one block of community development funds distributed each year by formula, accounting for population and measures of distress including poverty, age of housing, housing overcrowding, and growth lag. 

    Public Law No.93-383  (1974). 

     

    This statute created the Community Development Block Grant program merging numerous categorical programs into one block of community development funds distributed each year by formula, accounting for population and measures of distress including poverty, age of housing, housing overcrowding, and growth lag. 

    Public Law No.93-383  (1974). 

     

  • Individual Author: Kilpatrick, Robert W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1973

    Comparisons of the extent of poverty at different times are greatly affected by whether the dividing line between the poor and the rest of the population changes as average income grows over time, and if so to what degree. The absolute income standard and the relative income standard are polar hypotheses about the income elasticity of the poverty line. Under an absolute standard of poverty, the poverty line is constant (in deflated dollars). In terms of what people thought of as poverty a century ago, the absolute standard implies that today almost no one is poor in the United States. Under a relative standard of poverty, the poverty line changes in the same proportion as average income if the relative income distribution is constant. The relative standard implies that if the shape of the income distribution is the same today as a century ago, the poverty problem is now no less. Probably more likely than either of these extremes is that people's judgment about the dividing line between poverty and a more adequate standard of living is determined by a mixture of concerns over both...

    Comparisons of the extent of poverty at different times are greatly affected by whether the dividing line between the poor and the rest of the population changes as average income grows over time, and if so to what degree. The absolute income standard and the relative income standard are polar hypotheses about the income elasticity of the poverty line. Under an absolute standard of poverty, the poverty line is constant (in deflated dollars). In terms of what people thought of as poverty a century ago, the absolute standard implies that today almost no one is poor in the United States. Under a relative standard of poverty, the poverty line changes in the same proportion as average income if the relative income distribution is constant. The relative standard implies that if the shape of the income distribution is the same today as a century ago, the poverty problem is now no less. Probably more likely than either of these extremes is that people's judgment about the dividing line between poverty and a more adequate standard of living is determined by a mixture of concerns over both absolute- and relative conditions. If so, growth in average income increases the poverty line, but by less than in the same proportion. This proposition-that the income elasticity of the poverty line is between zero and one-is the hypothesis tested in this paper. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Congress
    Reference Type: Statute
    Year: 1972

    This statute amended the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 and the National School Lunch Act of 1946 and created the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as a pilot program.

    Public Law 92-433 (1972).

    This statute amended the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 and the National School Lunch Act of 1946 and created the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as a pilot program.

    Public Law 92-433 (1972).

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