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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Kemple, James J.; Rock, JoAnn
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    Career Academies are one of several school-to-work approaches specifically authorized under the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994, a major milestone in the school-to-work movement. The Career Academies are “schools-within-schools” in which groups of students (usually 30 to 60 per grade in grades 9 through 12 or 10 through 12) take several classes together each year with the same group of teachers. The Academies focus on a career theme, such as health, business and finance, or electronics, which is usually determined by local employment opportunities and evidence of growing demand for such expertise in the marketplace. Career Academies’ curricula consist of traditional academic classes (such as math, English, science, and social studies) combined with occupation-related classes that focus on the career theme. Local employers from that field help plan and guide the program, and they serve as mentors and provide work experience for the students...

    This is the first report on the Career Academies Evaluation. It includes several preliminary findings that have important...

    Career Academies are one of several school-to-work approaches specifically authorized under the School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994, a major milestone in the school-to-work movement. The Career Academies are “schools-within-schools” in which groups of students (usually 30 to 60 per grade in grades 9 through 12 or 10 through 12) take several classes together each year with the same group of teachers. The Academies focus on a career theme, such as health, business and finance, or electronics, which is usually determined by local employment opportunities and evidence of growing demand for such expertise in the marketplace. Career Academies’ curricula consist of traditional academic classes (such as math, English, science, and social studies) combined with occupation-related classes that focus on the career theme. Local employers from that field help plan and guide the program, and they serve as mentors and provide work experience for the students...

    This is the first report on the Career Academies Evaluation. It includes several preliminary findings that have important implications both for the evaluation and for policy and practice related to the Career Academies and other school-to-work approaches. Later reports will include additional analyses of how the Career Academies operate and will examine students’ and teachers’ experiences in the Academy and non-Academy high school environments. These reports will also include findings on the extent to which the Academies improve education and work-related outcomes for students. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Zigler, Edward F.; Finn-Stevenson, Matia
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every community—the public school. The linkage of child care with the public education system would eliminate the false distinction between child care and education, and would create a universally accessible system of child care services for children. The School of the 21st Century is an example of such a system. Initially conceptualized by Zigler, it has now been implemented in 400 schools across 13 states, with the leadership and direction of Finn-Stevenson.

    This article describes how school districts that have implemented the program employ a mixture of parent fees and local, state, federal, and private dollars to fund it, and then proposes an ideal financing model for the program. In the ideal model, the same mix of funding sources...

    Ensuring the availability of high-quality, affordable child care to all families who need it is a goal of national importance. The authors suggest that a comprehensive financing and service delivery system for child care is needed to achieve this goal, and the system should ideally be grounded in an existing institution, already present in every community—the public school. The linkage of child care with the public education system would eliminate the false distinction between child care and education, and would create a universally accessible system of child care services for children. The School of the 21st Century is an example of such a system. Initially conceptualized by Zigler, it has now been implemented in 400 schools across 13 states, with the leadership and direction of Finn-Stevenson.

    This article describes how school districts that have implemented the program employ a mixture of parent fees and local, state, federal, and private dollars to fund it, and then proposes an ideal financing model for the program. In the ideal model, the same mix of funding sources would be retained, but a per-pupil expenditure of about $9,000 per year is advocated to deliver child care and other social services to three- and four-year-olds. Funds for initial start-up could be derived from reallocation of existing dollars, especially state prekindergarten programs, but eventually new funds would be needed to support ongoing operations. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Altshuler, Rosanne; Schwartz, Amy E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    We evaluate the progressivity of the federal Child Care Tax Credit using the Ernst and Young/University of Michigan panel of tax return data. Incidence measures are calculated using both annual and “time exposure” income to measure ability to pay. Both indicate that the benefits of the credit are progressively distributed. Replacing annual with time-exposure income dramatically increases the proportion of the credit received by lower-income taxpayers and yields a more even distribution of benefits across middle- and upper-income taxpayers. Our results suggest that policymakers should use both income measures to evaluate the credit. (author abstract)

    We evaluate the progressivity of the federal Child Care Tax Credit using the Ernst and Young/University of Michigan panel of tax return data. Incidence measures are calculated using both annual and “time exposure” income to measure ability to pay. Both indicate that the benefits of the credit are progressively distributed. Replacing annual with time-exposure income dramatically increases the proportion of the credit received by lower-income taxpayers and yields a more even distribution of benefits across middle- and upper-income taxpayers. Our results suggest that policymakers should use both income measures to evaluate the credit. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meyers, Marcia K.; Lukemeyer, Anna; Smeeding, Timothy M.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    This paper addresses issues which arise at the juncture of welfare and disability policies. Using preliminary data from a recent survey of current and recent AFDC recipients in California, we find that disabilities and chronic health problems affect the mothers or children in 43 percent of all households in the AFDC system. The presence of one or more children with disabilities or chronic illnesses is found to have an impact on the economic well-being of families, with increased levels of direct hardship reported by families caring for one or more severely impaired children. Potential causes of higher levels of hardship are examined by considering the impact of direct expenses associated with the care of the child(ren) and reductions in the mother's probability of paid employment. SSI receipt is found to have a modest antipoverty effect for families with special needs children, reducing the prevalence of poverty and extreme poverty for families even after the additional direct costs of caring for these children are considered. (author abstract)

    This paper addresses issues which arise at the juncture of welfare and disability policies. Using preliminary data from a recent survey of current and recent AFDC recipients in California, we find that disabilities and chronic health problems affect the mothers or children in 43 percent of all households in the AFDC system. The presence of one or more children with disabilities or chronic illnesses is found to have an impact on the economic well-being of families, with increased levels of direct hardship reported by families caring for one or more severely impaired children. Potential causes of higher levels of hardship are examined by considering the impact of direct expenses associated with the care of the child(ren) and reductions in the mother's probability of paid employment. SSI receipt is found to have a modest antipoverty effect for families with special needs children, reducing the prevalence of poverty and extreme poverty for families even after the additional direct costs of caring for these children are considered. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Stoney, Louise; Greenberg, Mark H.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    The United States does not have a single coordinated child care system. Instead, child care and early education involve a complex mix of private and public funding for an array of formal and informal, regulated and unregulated, primarily educational and primarily custodial care arrangements. Public funding may be federal, state, or local and may be in the form of tax relief, vouchers or reimbursements to families, contractual arrangements with providers, or direct provision of services. This article describes the principal sources of public and private funding for child care, highlights some of the key issues resulting from the current fragmented funding approach, and suggests some possible consequences if pending federal legislation restructuring several public funding programs is enacted. (Author introduction)

    The United States does not have a single coordinated child care system. Instead, child care and early education involve a complex mix of private and public funding for an array of formal and informal, regulated and unregulated, primarily educational and primarily custodial care arrangements. Public funding may be federal, state, or local and may be in the form of tax relief, vouchers or reimbursements to families, contractual arrangements with providers, or direct provision of services. This article describes the principal sources of public and private funding for child care, highlights some of the key issues resulting from the current fragmented funding approach, and suggests some possible consequences if pending federal legislation restructuring several public funding programs is enacted. (Author introduction)

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