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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Criden, Madelaine
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    Access to transportation by low-income individuals and families has become limited as the majority of low-income households reside in rural areas and central cities, while basic amenities are increasingly located in the suburbs. With new jobs emerging further and further away from central cities, many low-income workers often have difficulty accessing jobs, training and other services such as childcare because of inadequate transportation. In addition, many minimum wage jobs require working evening or weekend hours, but traditional transportation systems often do not serve their routes during these times. Access to affordable transportation for low-income workers, elderly rural residents, and children makes the trip to work, school, and medical appointments possible. It fosters self-sustainability, promotes independence, and permits spending on other household essentials. Given these benefits, this issue brief will demonstrate that rural public transportation is indispensable. (author abstract)

    Access to transportation by low-income individuals and families has become limited as the majority of low-income households reside in rural areas and central cities, while basic amenities are increasingly located in the suburbs. With new jobs emerging further and further away from central cities, many low-income workers often have difficulty accessing jobs, training and other services such as childcare because of inadequate transportation. In addition, many minimum wage jobs require working evening or weekend hours, but traditional transportation systems often do not serve their routes during these times. Access to affordable transportation for low-income workers, elderly rural residents, and children makes the trip to work, school, and medical appointments possible. It fosters self-sustainability, promotes independence, and permits spending on other household essentials. Given these benefits, this issue brief will demonstrate that rural public transportation is indispensable. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Fletcher, Cynthia N.; Garasky, Steven B.; Jensen, Helen H.; Nielsen, Robert B.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2010

    Findings from three sequential studies build an understanding of the transportation barriers facing poor rural families and the link between transportation access and economic outcomes. An in-depth, longitudinal qualitative study explored multiple dimensions of the role of transportation in family life. The results of this study yielded emergent themes and hypotheses used in the subsequent studies. The second study used multiple methods to analyze Census data, vehicle registration lists, and focus group interviews to identify transportation resources in a rural county and to assess transportation needs and barriers facing welfare recipients. The third study addressed the association between transportation and economic outcomes using a dual frame household survey in a cluster of five counties. The article concludes that although policies to provide access to transportation services for rural families may enhance employment opportunities, other related outcomes and longer term effects require additional study. (author abstract)

    Findings from three sequential studies build an understanding of the transportation barriers facing poor rural families and the link between transportation access and economic outcomes. An in-depth, longitudinal qualitative study explored multiple dimensions of the role of transportation in family life. The results of this study yielded emergent themes and hypotheses used in the subsequent studies. The second study used multiple methods to analyze Census data, vehicle registration lists, and focus group interviews to identify transportation resources in a rural county and to assess transportation needs and barriers facing welfare recipients. The third study addressed the association between transportation and economic outcomes using a dual frame household survey in a cluster of five counties. The article concludes that although policies to provide access to transportation services for rural families may enhance employment opportunities, other related outcomes and longer term effects require additional study. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ipsen, Catherine
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    In testimony to the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, Billy Altom, Executive Director of the Association of Programs for Rural Independent Living (APRIL) stated, “the lack of available, affordable, and accessible transportation is one of the most significant and persistent problems faced by people with disabilities…This is especially true in rural America.” Lack of transportation translates into barriers in employment, health care access, and community participation among rural people with disabilities (Iezzoni, Killeen, & O’Day, 2006; Crudden, Sansing, & Butler, 2005). Recently, this was confirmed by Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agency research participants, representing 48 VR agencies in 37 states, who said transportation was a significant barrier to successful employment outcomes among rural clients. (author abstract)

    In testimony to the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, Billy Altom, Executive Director of the Association of Programs for Rural Independent Living (APRIL) stated, “the lack of available, affordable, and accessible transportation is one of the most significant and persistent problems faced by people with disabilities…This is especially true in rural America.” Lack of transportation translates into barriers in employment, health care access, and community participation among rural people with disabilities (Iezzoni, Killeen, & O’Day, 2006; Crudden, Sansing, & Butler, 2005). Recently, this was confirmed by Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) agency research participants, representing 48 VR agencies in 37 states, who said transportation was a significant barrier to successful employment outcomes among rural clients. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wedel, Kenneth R. ; Marshment, Richard S.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    This project was undertaken to advance the state-of-the-practice in planning service to transport recipients of welfare programs and other low income individuals to education, training and jobs in rural areas. Lack of transportation can be a significant barrier for rural welfare populations required to work. The methodology involved two elements. First, state level planners and rural transit agencies were surveyed regarding procedures used to develop services for rural residents affected by welfare reform legislation. We report on key informants involved in state-wide and sub-state planning initiatives to provide transportation services for rural residents affected by welfare reform. The survey identified major stakeholders involved in planning, role of state level elected officials, funding for planning, transportation services provided, and ingredients key informants deemed most important for successful planning. Second, a national conference was planned and conducted on the topic of "Exploring Rural Transit Services for Your Community." Presenters at the conference...

    This project was undertaken to advance the state-of-the-practice in planning service to transport recipients of welfare programs and other low income individuals to education, training and jobs in rural areas. Lack of transportation can be a significant barrier for rural welfare populations required to work. The methodology involved two elements. First, state level planners and rural transit agencies were surveyed regarding procedures used to develop services for rural residents affected by welfare reform legislation. We report on key informants involved in state-wide and sub-state planning initiatives to provide transportation services for rural residents affected by welfare reform. The survey identified major stakeholders involved in planning, role of state level elected officials, funding for planning, transportation services provided, and ingredients key informants deemed most important for successful planning. Second, a national conference was planned and conducted on the topic of "Exploring Rural Transit Services for Your Community." Presenters at the conference included representatives of federal and state agencies concerned with rural transportation for welfare populations, local transit providers, and others involved in planning rural transportation services. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Stommes, Eileen S.; Brown, Dennis M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    Rural areas present special challenges for meeting the transportation needs of individuals, especially people without cars. Congress established the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program in 1998 to assist states and localities in developing transportation services to connect welfare recipients and other low-income residents to jobs and other support programs. There are key results of a study examining eight rural areas receiving JARC funding in Fiscal Year 1999. Specific program elements include the implementation process, transportation services provided, and solutions developed to deal with the challenges of distance and low population densities that rural transit systems frequently face. (author abstract)

    Rural areas present special challenges for meeting the transportation needs of individuals, especially people without cars. Congress established the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program in 1998 to assist states and localities in developing transportation services to connect welfare recipients and other low-income residents to jobs and other support programs. There are key results of a study examining eight rural areas receiving JARC funding in Fiscal Year 1999. Specific program elements include the implementation process, transportation services provided, and solutions developed to deal with the challenges of distance and low population densities that rural transit systems frequently face. (author abstract)

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