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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Zedlewski, Sheila R.; Holcomb, Pamela A.; Duke, Amy-Ellen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    Because states varied considerably in their use of waivers, substantial diversity already existed among states' welfare programs when Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was created in mid-1996. This paper examines how this diversity influenced initial state actions regarding TANF. It highlights trends and patterns in policy as well as choices made in light of states' historical approaches to welfare. (author abstract)

    Because states varied considerably in their use of waivers, substantial diversity already existed among states' welfare programs when Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was created in mid-1996. This paper examines how this diversity influenced initial state actions regarding TANF. It highlights trends and patterns in policy as well as choices made in light of states' historical approaches to welfare. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Pandey, Shanta; Porterfield, Shirley; Choi-Ko, Hyeji; Yoon, Hong-Sik
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    This paper documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on rural families in Missouri. We analyze primary data obtained from interviews with 162 single-mother families with children residing in six rural counties in Missouri who are either former or current welfare recipients. This information was substantiated by focus group interviews with current or former welfare recipients conducted between 1998 and 2000. The results provide useful insights into the impacts of welfare reform on families in rural America. Welfare recipients in rural areas have higher levels of education and job experience than the general welfare population in the nation, but they live in areas with fewer job opportunities and very poor public transportation. Those who are employed are making an average of $5.50 per hour and continue to live in poverty. With the economy slowing down across the nation, rural welfare recipients are beginning to increase again, after several years of decline. For rural women to exit welfare, improvement in a variety of work support programs including wages, EITC...

    This paper documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on rural families in Missouri. We analyze primary data obtained from interviews with 162 single-mother families with children residing in six rural counties in Missouri who are either former or current welfare recipients. This information was substantiated by focus group interviews with current or former welfare recipients conducted between 1998 and 2000. The results provide useful insights into the impacts of welfare reform on families in rural America. Welfare recipients in rural areas have higher levels of education and job experience than the general welfare population in the nation, but they live in areas with fewer job opportunities and very poor public transportation. Those who are employed are making an average of $5.50 per hour and continue to live in poverty. With the economy slowing down across the nation, rural welfare recipients are beginning to increase again, after several years of decline. For rural women to exit welfare, improvement in a variety of work support programs including wages, EITC, Food Stamps, childcare, and transportation will have to be made. In addition, opportunities for postsecondary education must be available for low-income women who want to pursue their education beyond high school. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ovwigho, Pamela C.; Born, Catherine E.; Ferrero, Ann; Palazzo, Correne
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    The truth is that neither the nation nor individual states possess data descriptive of today’s active TANF caseload that is adequate to the critical task at hand: making program and policy decisions for the next few years that are consistent with and responsive to the circumstances and needs of today’s cash assistance clients. Absent this type of data, state and federal policy-makers will be hard-pressed to make the correct choices. Moreover, the consequences of poor decisions could be severe given the recent economic downturn, the up-ticks in welfare caseloads that have been observed in many states, and time limits on receipt of federally-funded cash assistance.

    In response to a solicitation issued by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, five states and the District of Columbia received financial support to examine and report on the characteristics and circumstances of their current cash assistance caseloads. Within this framework, the goal of our project is to answer two questions that are...

    The truth is that neither the nation nor individual states possess data descriptive of today’s active TANF caseload that is adequate to the critical task at hand: making program and policy decisions for the next few years that are consistent with and responsive to the circumstances and needs of today’s cash assistance clients. Absent this type of data, state and federal policy-makers will be hard-pressed to make the correct choices. Moreover, the consequences of poor decisions could be severe given the recent economic downturn, the up-ticks in welfare caseloads that have been observed in many states, and time limits on receipt of federally-funded cash assistance.

    In response to a solicitation issued by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, five states and the District of Columbia received financial support to examine and report on the characteristics and circumstances of their current cash assistance caseloads. Within this framework, the goal of our project is to answer two questions that are of inestimable importance to policymakers and program managers:

    • What is the profile of the current Maryland TANF caseload?
    • How does this profile vary across jurisdictions?

    We hope to contribute to the development of a body of knowledge about welfare users that is comparable to that which currently exists about welfare leavers and generate information that is useful in policy-making and program management in Maryland. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bono, Michael; Toros, Halil
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2005

    On January 4, 2005, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors requested that DPSS provide more information on homeless CalWORKs families. In response to this request, DPSS developed a two-pronged strategy, in collaboration with the Service Integration Branch of the Los Angeles County Chief Administrative Office: (1) a detailed analysis of administrative data for all families who received CalWORKs in Los Angeles County between September and November 2004; and (2) a survey of 373 CalWORKs participants who applied for special assistance for homelessness during the week of February 22 through February 28, 2005.

    The identification of homeless families is a complex issue. Unlike the recent effort by the Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority (LAHSA) to observe and count homeless persons in our communities, DPSS relies on a participant’s self-disclosure of homelessness to a worker to identify a family as homeless and respond to a family’s housing crisis with special assistance.

    PART I of this report describes findings from analyses of the administrative caseload data,...

    On January 4, 2005, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors requested that DPSS provide more information on homeless CalWORKs families. In response to this request, DPSS developed a two-pronged strategy, in collaboration with the Service Integration Branch of the Los Angeles County Chief Administrative Office: (1) a detailed analysis of administrative data for all families who received CalWORKs in Los Angeles County between September and November 2004; and (2) a survey of 373 CalWORKs participants who applied for special assistance for homelessness during the week of February 22 through February 28, 2005.

    The identification of homeless families is a complex issue. Unlike the recent effort by the Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority (LAHSA) to observe and count homeless persons in our communities, DPSS relies on a participant’s self-disclosure of homelessness to a worker to identify a family as homeless and respond to a family’s housing crisis with special assistance.

    PART I of this report describes findings from analyses of the administrative caseload data, and PART II describes results from the participant survey. Taken together, this data presents the most detailed information ever compiled regarding CalWORKs homeless families in Los Angeles County. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Ratcliffe, Caroline; Harbison, Elizabeth; Parnes, Joanna
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    The Minnesota Integrated Services Projects focus on improving the delivery of employment, health, and social services to families who receive cash assistance and have serious or multiple barriers to employment. Operating in eight sites, the project seeks to provide comprehensive assessments of participants' barriers, improve access to more complete services that address multiple needs, and coordinate services provided by multiple service systems. This report examines the implementation of the projects, provides information on participants' demographic, economic and barrier-related characteristics, and describes changes in economic outcomes among participants within a short (six-month) follow-up period. (author abstract)

    The Minnesota Integrated Services Projects focus on improving the delivery of employment, health, and social services to families who receive cash assistance and have serious or multiple barriers to employment. Operating in eight sites, the project seeks to provide comprehensive assessments of participants' barriers, improve access to more complete services that address multiple needs, and coordinate services provided by multiple service systems. This report examines the implementation of the projects, provides information on participants' demographic, economic and barrier-related characteristics, and describes changes in economic outcomes among participants within a short (six-month) follow-up period. (author abstract)

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