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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Clagett, Craig A.
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1997

    In an effort to reevaluate employment preparation in community college curricula, a review of recent research was conducted to identify the most valued skills in today's workforce. Among the abilities desired by today's employers are: (1) knowing how to learn; (2) competence in reading, writing, and computation; (3) effective listening and oral communication skills; (4) adaptability through creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management with strong self esteem and initiative; (6) interpersonal skills; and (7) leadership effectiveness. This comprehensive skill set, once required only of managers, but now applying to all levels of employment, appeared in several employer surveys, with an additional emphasis on communication and computer/technical skills. (Author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

    In an effort to reevaluate employment preparation in community college curricula, a review of recent research was conducted to identify the most valued skills in today's workforce. Among the abilities desired by today's employers are: (1) knowing how to learn; (2) competence in reading, writing, and computation; (3) effective listening and oral communication skills; (4) adaptability through creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management with strong self esteem and initiative; (6) interpersonal skills; and (7) leadership effectiveness. This comprehensive skill set, once required only of managers, but now applying to all levels of employment, appeared in several employer surveys, with an additional emphasis on communication and computer/technical skills. (Author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

  • Individual Author: Hershey, Alan M.; Pavetti, LaDonna A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Most welfare-to-work programs designed to help single mothers leave welfare for employment focus on the challenge of finding a job. This article looks beyond the point of employment to consider the difficulty many former welfare recipients have keeping their jobs. The authors review evidence showing that many families cycle back and forth between welfare and work, losing jobs and returning to public assistance while they seek work again. Factors contributing to high rates of job loss include characteristics of the job and of the worker: Temporary jobs, frequent layoffs, low pay in relation to work expenses, lack of experience meeting employer expectations, and personal or family problems all lead to dismissals and resignations. Drawing from the experience of innovative programs, the authors recommend policy changes and program approaches that can help families overcome setbacks and stabilize their lives as they move from welfare into increasingly stable employment. (author abstract)

    Most welfare-to-work programs designed to help single mothers leave welfare for employment focus on the challenge of finding a job. This article looks beyond the point of employment to consider the difficulty many former welfare recipients have keeping their jobs. The authors review evidence showing that many families cycle back and forth between welfare and work, losing jobs and returning to public assistance while they seek work again. Factors contributing to high rates of job loss include characteristics of the job and of the worker: Temporary jobs, frequent layoffs, low pay in relation to work expenses, lack of experience meeting employer expectations, and personal or family problems all lead to dismissals and resignations. Drawing from the experience of innovative programs, the authors recommend policy changes and program approaches that can help families overcome setbacks and stabilize their lives as they move from welfare into increasingly stable employment. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Corcoran, Mary E.; Chaudry, Ajay
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including slow economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children, Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family...

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including slow economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children, Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Shirk, Martha; Bennett, Neil G.; Aber, J. Lawrence
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1999

    In Lives on the Line, Martha Shirk, Neil G. Bennett, and NCCP Director J. Lawrence Aber meld affecting personal profiles with sophisticated demographic analysis to create a vivid portrait of what life is like for more than 14 million American children growing up below the poverty line. In personal profiles of ten families across the nation, from a Pacific Islander family in Hawaii to a homeless family in a wealthy New York City suburb, award-winning journalist Martha Shirk depicts the realities of life for children below the poverty line. She takes readers deep into the lives of families in poverty—lives sometimes marked by childhood abuse, parental loss, and long-term violence—and with each family explores their prospects for moving above the poverty threshold. Along the way, Shirk finds amazing resilience, resourcefulness, and strength of spirit in many of these poor families.

    Neil G. Bennett, Director of Demography for the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University (NCCP), shatters many commonly held stereotypes by analyzing Census Bureau...

    In Lives on the Line, Martha Shirk, Neil G. Bennett, and NCCP Director J. Lawrence Aber meld affecting personal profiles with sophisticated demographic analysis to create a vivid portrait of what life is like for more than 14 million American children growing up below the poverty line. In personal profiles of ten families across the nation, from a Pacific Islander family in Hawaii to a homeless family in a wealthy New York City suburb, award-winning journalist Martha Shirk depicts the realities of life for children below the poverty line. She takes readers deep into the lives of families in poverty—lives sometimes marked by childhood abuse, parental loss, and long-term violence—and with each family explores their prospects for moving above the poverty threshold. Along the way, Shirk finds amazing resilience, resourcefulness, and strength of spirit in many of these poor families.

    Neil G. Bennett, Director of Demography for the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University (NCCP), shatters many commonly held stereotypes by analyzing Census Bureau data to show which American children are most likely to be poor. He reports, for instance, that over 60 percent of poor young children have at least one employed parent, that most poor young children live in suburban or rural areas, and that a parent's graduation from high school is insufficient to insure against poverty. Among his most startling findings are that in the last two decades, the Young Child Poverty Rate grew significantly faster in the suburbs than in urban or rural areas, and that it grew much faster among whites than among blacks.

    J. Lawrence Aber, a nationally recognized expert in child development and social policy, describes the effects of poverty on child development and showcases proven strategies for preventing or reducing child poverty. He also shows us that it is in our national self-interest to address the problem of child poverty by making a smart investment in America's future.

    As a powerful portrait of the effects of poverty on America's children and families, Lives on the Line narrows the gap between “them” and “us.” It will change the way you think about the poor. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    After 16 previous editions, the Green Book has become a standard reference source on American social policy. It is widely used by Members of Congress and their staffs, analysts in congressional and administrative agencies, members of the media, scholars, and citizens interested in the Nation's social policy.

    This edition of the Green Book follows the basic pattern of previous editions. The volume is divided into two parts, Program Descriptions and Appendixes. In the Program Description part, separate sections are devoted to the major programs under jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means: Social Security; Medicare; Supplemental Security Income; Unemployment Compensation; Earned Entitlements for Railroad Employees; Trade Adjustment Assistance; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (Aid to Families with Dependent Children in previous editions); Child Support Enforcement; Child Care; Title XX Social Services Block Grant; Child Protection; Foster Care and Adoption Assistance; Social Welfare Programs in the Territories; Tax Provisions Related to Retirement, Health,...

    After 16 previous editions, the Green Book has become a standard reference source on American social policy. It is widely used by Members of Congress and their staffs, analysts in congressional and administrative agencies, members of the media, scholars, and citizens interested in the Nation's social policy.

    This edition of the Green Book follows the basic pattern of previous editions. The volume is divided into two parts, Program Descriptions and Appendixes. In the Program Description part, separate sections are devoted to the major programs under jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means: Social Security; Medicare; Supplemental Security Income; Unemployment Compensation; Earned Entitlements for Railroad Employees; Trade Adjustment Assistance; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (Aid to Families with Dependent Children in previous editions); Child Support Enforcement; Child Care; Title XX Social Services Block Grant; Child Protection; Foster Care and Adoption Assistance; Social Welfare Programs in the Territories; Tax Provisions Related to Retirement, Health, Poverty, Employment, Disability, and Other Social Issues; and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. A final section summarizes major social programs that are not under jurisdiction of the Committee (including food stamps, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program, Federal housing assistance, School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, the Child and Adult Care Food Program, the Workforce Investment Act, Head Start, the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program, veterans benefits and services, and workers' compensation).

    The Appendixes include information directly related to the programs under Committee jurisdiction, including: health care of the elderly; long-term care health care expenditures; Medicare reimbursements for hospitals and physicians; the Medicare+Choice Program; data on employment earnings, and unemployment; data on families and poverty; Federal budget tables; benefits available to noncitizens and spending on income-tested benefits in recent decades; a literature review of studies of the effects of welfare reform; and information about nonmarital births and Federal strategies to reduce nonmarital pregnancies.

    This year's Green Book contains several changes from the 1998 edition. In addition to updating data and legislative changes in all the sections and appendixes, a number of the sections have been substantially rewritten. The new section on the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program that was created by the 1996 welfare reform law is almost completely new. In addition, the sections on Social Security and child protection have been extensively reorganized and revised. Finally, three new appendixes have been added. One new appendix provides detailed information about the Medicare+Choice Program. Another new appendix, on which we received very helpful comments from many scholars and policy experts, reviews the large and growing research on welfare reform. The new appendix on nonmarital births, included in the Green Book at the suggestion of Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, provides a useful overview of historical trends in nonmarital births and recent actions taken by Congress to combat these trends. (author introduction)

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