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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Culhane, Dennis P.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Wilson, Cynthia P.; Weinreb, Jenni
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 1996

    While certain issues affect all homeless people, several are of particular relevance to homeless families. From the myriad of pressing issues surrounding the problem of homelessness, this report focuses on the following four points:

    1. In terms of the causes of homelessness, most families do not find themselves homeless as the result of a single financial mistake or stroke of bad luck; rather it is common for families to become homeless after a series of changes in their lives. These are likely to involve a combination of factors ranging from economic hardship due to a layoff or lack of training to a mental health issue or recurring substance abuse habit.
    2. The effects of homelessness, like the causes, are not isolated and specific. Furthermore, the problems that lead a family to homelessness often multiply and worsen for a period of time before the individuals and the family as a whole are able to alleviate them and regain self-sufficiency.
    3. To recover from homelessness and achieve self-sufficiency, housing assistance alone is not enough for most families...

    While certain issues affect all homeless people, several are of particular relevance to homeless families. From the myriad of pressing issues surrounding the problem of homelessness, this report focuses on the following four points:

    1. In terms of the causes of homelessness, most families do not find themselves homeless as the result of a single financial mistake or stroke of bad luck; rather it is common for families to become homeless after a series of changes in their lives. These are likely to involve a combination of factors ranging from economic hardship due to a layoff or lack of training to a mental health issue or recurring substance abuse habit.
    2. The effects of homelessness, like the causes, are not isolated and specific. Furthermore, the problems that lead a family to homelessness often multiply and worsen for a period of time before the individuals and the family as a whole are able to alleviate them and regain self-sufficiency.
    3. To recover from homelessness and achieve self-sufficiency, housing assistance alone is not enough for most families. Most require assistance and opportunities in areas at least as comprehensive as the issues that caused their homelessness in the first place. Areas of need include financial planning, substance abuse counseling, further education, parenting classes, mental health counseling, and treatment for chronic illnesses (including HIV/AIDS), among a host of others.
    4. For homeless families to improve their circumstances, their children must be able to remain in school and receive services necessary to address the developmental challenges that are likely to arise as a result of their homelessness. Without addressing the specific needs of homeless children, particularly those needs related to their homelessness, the long-term prospects for a family’s well-being may be greatly compromised. (author introduction)
  • Individual Author: Lewit, Eugene M.; Baker, Linda Schuurmann
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    This Child Indicators article focuses on available data on homeless families and children. First, it reviews different definitions of homelessness and the most common methods used to estimate the size of the homeless population. It then examines data on subgroups of homeless children and youths in the United States and considers the duration of homelessness for families with children that use shelter services. Finally, it examines trends in the numbers of families who are at risk of losing their housing. (author introduction)

    This Child Indicators article focuses on available data on homeless families and children. First, it reviews different definitions of homelessness and the most common methods used to estimate the size of the homeless population. It then examines data on subgroups of homeless children and youths in the United States and considers the duration of homelessness for families with children that use shelter services. Finally, it examines trends in the numbers of families who are at risk of losing their housing. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Folk, Karen Fox
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    Child care subsidies are crucial to becoming and remaining employed, yet the minimum cost of child care is not very much less for low-income families than for all families. The Census Bureau reports 1993 data on the cost of the care of preschool children for families with employed mothers: those with incomes under $1,200 per month paid an average of $47 a week, whereas the average cost of preschool child care for all families with employed mothers was $60/week. Bear in mind that these are averages, including a large proportion of women who work part time. Costs will be higher for W-2 participants employed full time.

    How do families manage when child care costs are 25– 33 percent of income? They rely heavily on relative care; only 40 percent of low-income families make cash payments for child care. The pattern is similar for single mothers: 60 percent pay for child care, and 40 percent use unpaid care by relatives. (author introduction)

    Child care subsidies are crucial to becoming and remaining employed, yet the minimum cost of child care is not very much less for low-income families than for all families. The Census Bureau reports 1993 data on the cost of the care of preschool children for families with employed mothers: those with incomes under $1,200 per month paid an average of $47 a week, whereas the average cost of preschool child care for all families with employed mothers was $60/week. Bear in mind that these are averages, including a large proportion of women who work part time. Costs will be higher for W-2 participants employed full time.

    How do families manage when child care costs are 25– 33 percent of income? They rely heavily on relative care; only 40 percent of low-income families make cash payments for child care. The pattern is similar for single mothers: 60 percent pay for child care, and 40 percent use unpaid care by relatives. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Helburn, Suzanne W.; Howes, Carollee
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1996

    This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in making child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study and the Economics of Family Child Care study. Results indicate that mediocre quality is the rule and that parents often do not choose quality settings for their children. At the present time, child care quality is only modestly related to the cost of providing services. In part, the modesty of this relationship reflects the low wages of child care staff, the availability of in-kind donations in the nonprofit sector, and the altruistic motivations of many providers that depress direct costs and the fees charged for child care. The article concludes with recommendations for future action: (1) launch consumer education efforts; (2) implement higher standards for child care at the state...

    This article summarizes what is known about the cost and quality of full-time child care in centers and family child care homes, and about parents' attention to quality in making child care choices. It relies primarily upon two recent studies which are among the first to collect detailed information about child care operating costs: the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers study and the Economics of Family Child Care study. Results indicate that mediocre quality is the rule and that parents often do not choose quality settings for their children. At the present time, child care quality is only modestly related to the cost of providing services. In part, the modesty of this relationship reflects the low wages of child care staff, the availability of in-kind donations in the nonprofit sector, and the altruistic motivations of many providers that depress direct costs and the fees charged for child care. The article concludes with recommendations for future action: (1) launch consumer education efforts; (2) implement higher standards for child care at the state level; (3) avoid public policies that encourage people to become child care providers if they have no interest in such a career; (4) increase public and private investments in child care; and (5) develop the means to compensate child care workers as is appropriate for their levels of training, experience, and responsibility. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Johnson, Clifford; Lopez, Ana Carricchi
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1997

    A comprehensive examination of research findings on past and current efforts to create publicly-funded jobs for disadvantaged adults and youth. This synthesis of the research literature presents six lessons to guide the development of future job creation efforts. These lessons are supplemented by two-page summaries of findings from evaluations of ten particularly prominent or interesting job creation models and a list of selected research references.
    (author abstract)

    A comprehensive examination of research findings on past and current efforts to create publicly-funded jobs for disadvantaged adults and youth. This synthesis of the research literature presents six lessons to guide the development of future job creation efforts. These lessons are supplemented by two-page summaries of findings from evaluations of ten particularly prominent or interesting job creation models and a list of selected research references.
    (author abstract)

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