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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Cole, Patricia; Buel, Sarah M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This paper looks at family violence and its impact upon the transition from welfare to work under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) established by the 1996 welfare reform. Recommendations are presented which encourages advocates and others to increase their involvement in welfare reform and other initiatives that target families living in extreme poverty. The paper addressed two primary issues. First, working within the TANF and welfare to work systems were discussed in order to identify and assist women in violent partnerships. And, second, helping low-income women gain employment and other necessary assistance so they are able to support themselves and escape the violent situation their poverty had perpetuated. Insights offered included: (1) women in extremely low-income households are much more likely to be victims of violence than women in higher-income households; (2) traditional mainstream approaches to helping battered women are often ineffective; and (3) it is impossible to separate women’s experiences with and responses to partner violence from...

    This paper looks at family violence and its impact upon the transition from welfare to work under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) established by the 1996 welfare reform. Recommendations are presented which encourages advocates and others to increase their involvement in welfare reform and other initiatives that target families living in extreme poverty. The paper addressed two primary issues. First, working within the TANF and welfare to work systems were discussed in order to identify and assist women in violent partnerships. And, second, helping low-income women gain employment and other necessary assistance so they are able to support themselves and escape the violent situation their poverty had perpetuated. Insights offered included: (1) women in extremely low-income households are much more likely to be victims of violence than women in higher-income households; (2) traditional mainstream approaches to helping battered women are often ineffective; and (3) it is impossible to separate women’s experiences with and responses to partner violence from the impact of poverty and other oppressions in their lives. The paper emphasized the Family Violence Option (FVO) allowing States to exempt TANF recipients from workforce participation if it would escalate domestic violence, impede escape from domestic violence, or result in sanctions against women as a result of domestic violence. Several insights were gained on how to reach and assist women in dealing with violent relationships that included: (1) services need to be located at or near TANF offices; (2) programs need to be race conscious, being both sensitive and responsive to different cultural experiences and values in order to achieve program participation; (3) basic survival needs, such as housing, food, clothing, or health care must be resolved before or as part of the work around family violence issues; and (4) assistance must be offered to increase their safety while in the abusive relationship. Several recommendations were offered as to how women in poverty who suffer from domestic violence should be treated that included: (1) providing pre- and post- employment education and training; (2) providing services necessary to gain and maintain living-wage employment; and (3) providing ongoing support in the areas of housing, child care, food stamps, and health care for those unable to get and keep jobs that have adequate wages and benefits. Welfare reform is seen as having brought attention to many battered women previously overlooked. Creating effective solutions is viewed as necessary to allow them to be both safe and financially secure. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: De La Rosa, Mario R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2000

    This paper provides a broad overview of the current poverty status of Latinos in the United States. Data from the 1996 U.S. Census indicates that poverty affects Latinos disproportionately and that Latinos' low educational attainment and poor occupational status participation have a great impact on the current poverty conditions of Latinos. Also discussed are the effects of poverty on the well-being of Latinos. The findings from the U.S. Census and several major health surveys suggest that there is a relationship between poverty and Latino current health and educational status. Recommendations are made by the author to alleviate the conditions of poverty faced by Latinos. (author abstract)

    This paper provides a broad overview of the current poverty status of Latinos in the United States. Data from the 1996 U.S. Census indicates that poverty affects Latinos disproportionately and that Latinos' low educational attainment and poor occupational status participation have a great impact on the current poverty conditions of Latinos. Also discussed are the effects of poverty on the well-being of Latinos. The findings from the U.S. Census and several major health surveys suggest that there is a relationship between poverty and Latino current health and educational status. Recommendations are made by the author to alleviate the conditions of poverty faced by Latinos. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Patel, Nisha
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The “work first” concept has played an important role in shaping state approaches to implementing the 1996 welfare law. The onset of TANF eliminated cash entitlements, and ushered in a new set of beliefs and practices regarding job training and education programs. The old system was criticized for its limited success in moving poor, unemployed adults with little work experience into the labor force. Welfare reform advocates say that it’s far better for these individuals to immediately take whatever job is available. But does this approach work in practice? This report, which includes statistics and policy recommendations, discusses the strengths and limitations of work first. (author abstract)

    The “work first” concept has played an important role in shaping state approaches to implementing the 1996 welfare law. The onset of TANF eliminated cash entitlements, and ushered in a new set of beliefs and practices regarding job training and education programs. The old system was criticized for its limited success in moving poor, unemployed adults with little work experience into the labor force. Welfare reform advocates say that it’s far better for these individuals to immediately take whatever job is available. But does this approach work in practice? This report, which includes statistics and policy recommendations, discusses the strengths and limitations of work first. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Western, Bruce ; Kling, Jeffrey R. ; Weiman, David F.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2001

    Rapid growth in the incarceration rate over the past two decades has made prison time a routine event in the life course of young, economically disadvantaged Black and Hispanic men. Although incarceration may now have large effects on economic inequality, only a few studies systematically examine the labor market experiences of ex-offenders. We review the mechanisms that plausibly link incarceration to employment and earnings and discuss the challenges of causal inference for a highly self-selected sample of criminal offenders. There is little consensus about the labor market effects of a variety of justice system sanctions, but there is consistent evidence for the negative effects of prison time on earnings, particularly among older or white-collar offenders. The labor market effects of incarceration are not yet well understood, but prior research suggests several promising avenues for future work. (author abstract)

    Rapid growth in the incarceration rate over the past two decades has made prison time a routine event in the life course of young, economically disadvantaged Black and Hispanic men. Although incarceration may now have large effects on economic inequality, only a few studies systematically examine the labor market experiences of ex-offenders. We review the mechanisms that plausibly link incarceration to employment and earnings and discuss the challenges of causal inference for a highly self-selected sample of criminal offenders. There is little consensus about the labor market effects of a variety of justice system sanctions, but there is consistent evidence for the negative effects of prison time on earnings, particularly among older or white-collar offenders. The labor market effects of incarceration are not yet well understood, but prior research suggests several promising avenues for future work. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 2001

    This Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 1999) documents the existence of striking disparities for minorities in mental health services and the underlying knowledge base. Racial and ethnic minorities have less access to mental health services than do whites. They are less likely to receive needed care. When they receive care, it is more likely to be poor in quality. This Supplement covers the four most recognized racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States. According to Federal classifications, African Americans (blacks), American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and white Americans (whites) are races. Hispanic American (Latino) is an ethnicity and may apply to a person of any race (U.S. Office of Management and Budget [OMB], 1978). For example, many people from the Dominican Republic identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino and their race as black. (Author introduction)

    This Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 1999) documents the existence of striking disparities for minorities in mental health services and the underlying knowledge base. Racial and ethnic minorities have less access to mental health services than do whites. They are less likely to receive needed care. When they receive care, it is more likely to be poor in quality. This Supplement covers the four most recognized racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States. According to Federal classifications, African Americans (blacks), American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and white Americans (whites) are races. Hispanic American (Latino) is an ethnicity and may apply to a person of any race (U.S. Office of Management and Budget [OMB], 1978). For example, many people from the Dominican Republic identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino and their race as black. (Author introduction)

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