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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Folk, Karen Fox
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    Child care subsidies are crucial to becoming and remaining employed, yet the minimum cost of child care is not very much less for low-income families than for all families. The Census Bureau reports 1993 data on the cost of the care of preschool children for families with employed mothers: those with incomes under $1,200 per month paid an average of $47 a week, whereas the average cost of preschool child care for all families with employed mothers was $60/week. Bear in mind that these are averages, including a large proportion of women who work part time. Costs will be higher for W-2 participants employed full time.

    How do families manage when child care costs are 25– 33 percent of income? They rely heavily on relative care; only 40 percent of low-income families make cash payments for child care. The pattern is similar for single mothers: 60 percent pay for child care, and 40 percent use unpaid care by relatives. (author introduction)

    Child care subsidies are crucial to becoming and remaining employed, yet the minimum cost of child care is not very much less for low-income families than for all families. The Census Bureau reports 1993 data on the cost of the care of preschool children for families with employed mothers: those with incomes under $1,200 per month paid an average of $47 a week, whereas the average cost of preschool child care for all families with employed mothers was $60/week. Bear in mind that these are averages, including a large proportion of women who work part time. Costs will be higher for W-2 participants employed full time.

    How do families manage when child care costs are 25– 33 percent of income? They rely heavily on relative care; only 40 percent of low-income families make cash payments for child care. The pattern is similar for single mothers: 60 percent pay for child care, and 40 percent use unpaid care by relatives. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Gennetian, Lisa A.; Gassman-Pines, Anna; Huston, Aletha C.; Crosby, Danielle A.; Chang, Young Eun; Lowe, Edward D.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    Child care policies have been a relatively understudied element of experimental welfare and employment studies. Yet, the tests of child care policy within experimental welfare and employment studies provide a source of convincing evidence about whether or not and how child care assistance for paid or regulated care can affect patterns of child care use, including subsidy use and reported problems with child care. Of the 21 experimental programs reviewed, 7 offered expanded child care assistance to experimental group members that differed from what was offered to control group members. These treatment differences depict some aspects of current child care policies implemented in states and counties, particularly those policies that affect payment or information about child care services. The remaining 14 experimental programs offered the same child care assistance to experimental and control group members. The child care policy dimension(s) represents a unique policy component across the array of experimental programs, providing a foundation for understanding how treatment...

    Child care policies have been a relatively understudied element of experimental welfare and employment studies. Yet, the tests of child care policy within experimental welfare and employment studies provide a source of convincing evidence about whether or not and how child care assistance for paid or regulated care can affect patterns of child care use, including subsidy use and reported problems with child care. Of the 21 experimental programs reviewed, 7 offered expanded child care assistance to experimental group members that differed from what was offered to control group members. These treatment differences depict some aspects of current child care policies implemented in states and counties, particularly those policies that affect payment or information about child care services. The remaining 14 experimental programs offered the same child care assistance to experimental and control group members. The child care policy dimension(s) represents a unique policy component across the array of experimental programs, providing a foundation for understanding how treatment differences in child care policy may have led to program effects on economic, child care and other outcomes independent from the influence of other policy components such as mandates, earnings supplements and time limits. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kimmel, Jean
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2001

    The author summarizes the concerns facing low-income working families as ones of affordability, availability, and quality. The paper outlines the economic circumstances facing low-income working families and a description of their current child care utilization patterns. Then the author discusses the relationship between child care and employment, presenting first a theoretical derivation and then empirical evidence. The author discusses the justification for governmental intervention in the child care market, the types of intervention in existence today, and the possible consequences of such intervention. The author presents a set of proposals designed to alleviate some of the child care problems facing low-income families today. 

    The author summarizes the concerns facing low-income working families as ones of affordability, availability, and quality. The paper outlines the economic circumstances facing low-income working families and a description of their current child care utilization patterns. Then the author discusses the relationship between child care and employment, presenting first a theoretical derivation and then empirical evidence. The author discusses the justification for governmental intervention in the child care market, the types of intervention in existence today, and the possible consequences of such intervention. The author presents a set of proposals designed to alleviate some of the child care problems facing low-income families today. 

  • Individual Author: Henry, Colleen; Werschkul, Misha; Rao, Manita C.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    In the current debate over welfare reauthorization, the importance of child care assistance for low-income and working families cannot be overstated. This briefing paper explores the current status of government child care assistance, reviews research on the connections between child care assistance, mothers’ labor force participation, and children’s development, and offers policy recommendations for improving the quality and quantity of child care assistance. (author abstract)

    In the current debate over welfare reauthorization, the importance of child care assistance for low-income and working families cannot be overstated. This briefing paper explores the current status of government child care assistance, reviews research on the connections between child care assistance, mothers’ labor force participation, and children’s development, and offers policy recommendations for improving the quality and quantity of child care assistance. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Research Connections
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 2006

    Research Connections conducted a comprehensive search of its collection for resources focused on the relationship between receipt of child care subsidies and employment outcomes of families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and other low income families.

    From the many results, Research Connections selected a limited number of resources of various types- including reports and papers, fact sheets and briefs, summaries, and reviews. Selection criteria included policy relevance and relatively recent publication. (Note: much of the literature on this topic focuses on families receiving welfare given that a key subsidy policy is to help families transition from welfare to work, however the resources below also include research on the subsidy receipt and employment outcomes of former welfare recipients and low-income families.)

    Resources are organized according to publisher type and publication date. Research Connection’s one-sentence description is included for each resource on the following list. For complete citations, which include abstracts and...

    Research Connections conducted a comprehensive search of its collection for resources focused on the relationship between receipt of child care subsidies and employment outcomes of families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and other low income families.

    From the many results, Research Connections selected a limited number of resources of various types- including reports and papers, fact sheets and briefs, summaries, and reviews. Selection criteria included policy relevance and relatively recent publication. (Note: much of the literature on this topic focuses on families receiving welfare given that a key subsidy policy is to help families transition from welfare to work, however the resources below also include research on the subsidy receipt and employment outcomes of former welfare recipients and low-income families.)

    Resources are organized according to publisher type and publication date. Research Connection’s one-sentence description is included for each resource on the following list. For complete citations, which include abstracts and full text for some resources, click on the titles. (Author abstract)

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