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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Holcomb, Pamela A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    As states reform their welfare systems to emphasize work and self-sufficiency, they can draw on significant past experience with efforts to promote employment. Work and training programs for welfare recipients and other disadvantaged individuals have been operating in every state for nearly 30 years. This article summarizes findings from key evaluations of strategies to increase the employment and earnings of individuals. The article also reviews lessons about program design and management drawn from studies of program outcomes and implementation. Evaluations of net impact typically measure outcomes for randomly selected individuals who participated in programs, and compare those with outcomes for individuals who did not receive the treatment. Studies of program outcome and implementation analyze the effectiveness of entire programs in real-world operational settings. The evidence from net-impact evaluations shows that programs that encourage, help, or require welfare recipients to find jobs or participate in training or work-related activities can increase employment and...

    As states reform their welfare systems to emphasize work and self-sufficiency, they can draw on significant past experience with efforts to promote employment. Work and training programs for welfare recipients and other disadvantaged individuals have been operating in every state for nearly 30 years. This article summarizes findings from key evaluations of strategies to increase the employment and earnings of individuals. The article also reviews lessons about program design and management drawn from studies of program outcomes and implementation. Evaluations of net impact typically measure outcomes for randomly selected individuals who participated in programs, and compare those with outcomes for individuals who did not receive the treatment. Studies of program outcome and implementation analyze the effectiveness of entire programs in real-world operational settings. The evidence from net-impact evaluations shows that programs that encourage, help, or require welfare recipients to find jobs or participate in training or work-related activities can increase employment and earnings and in some cases reduce welfare costs. Even the most successful programs, however, yield only small gains in earnings that do not move most former welfare recipients out of poverty. The article also discusses critical policy and implementation issues that influence the effectiveness of welfare-to-work programs overall. It focuses on strategies for increasing rates of participation in the programs, for improving implementation, and for strengthening links with the local labor market, which ultimately determines the success or failure of any welfare-to-work program. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tyuse, Sabrina W.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    For six decades welfare entitlements were designated for the aid of poor children and since 1950, their caretaker. The current TANF program, however, represents a fundamental shift from child-focused aid programs to caretaker-focused work obligations. What are the economic and social consequences of a time-limited governmental reordering of responsibility for vulnerable children? More importantly, what impacts will caretaker-centered requirements and untested time limits have on the life chances of disadvantaged children? This article assesses from a social justice perspective previous income maintenance welfare initiatives, reviews their intended and actual outcomes, and explores the expected growing economic and social isolation of welfare recipients with current TANF policies. Following this assessment, future government initiatives as well social justice-type strategies to address the economic and social isolation of welfare recipients are recommended. (author abstract)

    For six decades welfare entitlements were designated for the aid of poor children and since 1950, their caretaker. The current TANF program, however, represents a fundamental shift from child-focused aid programs to caretaker-focused work obligations. What are the economic and social consequences of a time-limited governmental reordering of responsibility for vulnerable children? More importantly, what impacts will caretaker-centered requirements and untested time limits have on the life chances of disadvantaged children? This article assesses from a social justice perspective previous income maintenance welfare initiatives, reviews their intended and actual outcomes, and explores the expected growing economic and social isolation of welfare recipients with current TANF policies. Following this assessment, future government initiatives as well social justice-type strategies to address the economic and social isolation of welfare recipients are recommended. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Vu, Catherine M.; Anthony, Elizabeth K.; Austin, Michael J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    The Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 reauthorized the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant program through 2010 and expanded work participation standards by putting increased pressure on states to meet stricter work participation rate requirements. If states fail to meet these requirements or make adequate progress, they will face potentially severe federal fiscal sanctions. This analysis presents the major findings from a literature review on engagement strategies for the welfare-to-work population, with implications for meeting participation requirements and helping families achieve self-sufficiency from a program perspective. Major findings of this review include an effective combination of the labor force attachment (LFA) and the human capital development (HCD) approaches, program models, and participant- and organization-focused strategies. (author abstract)

     

    The Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 reauthorized the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant program through 2010 and expanded work participation standards by putting increased pressure on states to meet stricter work participation rate requirements. If states fail to meet these requirements or make adequate progress, they will face potentially severe federal fiscal sanctions. This analysis presents the major findings from a literature review on engagement strategies for the welfare-to-work population, with implications for meeting participation requirements and helping families achieve self-sufficiency from a program perspective. Major findings of this review include an effective combination of the labor force attachment (LFA) and the human capital development (HCD) approaches, program models, and participant- and organization-focused strategies. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Greenberg, David H.; Robins, Philip K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2011

    The authors examine data from 21 random assignment evaluations of 76 experimental welfare-to-work programs conducted in the United States between 1983 and 1998 to determine whether the impacts of these programs on employment improved over time. Welfare-to-work programs have long played an important role in the federal assistance program known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now called Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Over the 16-year period covered by the experiments, an increasing percentage of control group members received services similar to those offered to program group members. As a result, the differential participation in program service activities between the program and the control group decreased steadily over time, reducing the impact of these programs on employment. The negative influence of the reduced incremental services was nevertheless offset by other factors that resulted in program impacts remaining essentially constant during the study period. The authors suggest ways to improve program impacts in future experiments.(author...

    The authors examine data from 21 random assignment evaluations of 76 experimental welfare-to-work programs conducted in the United States between 1983 and 1998 to determine whether the impacts of these programs on employment improved over time. Welfare-to-work programs have long played an important role in the federal assistance program known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now called Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Over the 16-year period covered by the experiments, an increasing percentage of control group members received services similar to those offered to program group members. As a result, the differential participation in program service activities between the program and the control group decreased steadily over time, reducing the impact of these programs on employment. The negative influence of the reduced incremental services was nevertheless offset by other factors that resulted in program impacts remaining essentially constant during the study period. The authors suggest ways to improve program impacts in future experiments.(author abstract)

    This article was based on a working paper from the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin.

  • Individual Author: Hahn, Heather; Adams, Gina; Spaulding, Shayne; Heller, Caroline
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2016

    Low-income families receiving cash assistance through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) also need assistance with workforce development and child care. Workforce development and child care subsidy systems support low-income families and individuals, but are TANF families well served by these systems? This report outlines the opportunities that the workforce development and child care subsidy systems offer, highlights the challenges of meeting the complex needs of these highly disadvantaged families, and identifies implications for federal and state policy improvements. (Author abstract)

    Low-income families receiving cash assistance through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) also need assistance with workforce development and child care. Workforce development and child care subsidy systems support low-income families and individuals, but are TANF families well served by these systems? This report outlines the opportunities that the workforce development and child care subsidy systems offer, highlights the challenges of meeting the complex needs of these highly disadvantaged families, and identifies implications for federal and state policy improvements. (Author abstract)

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