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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Grubb, W. Norton
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1996

    Over the past three decades, job training programs have proliferated in response to mounting problems of unemployment, poverty, and expanding welfare rolls. These programs and the institutions that administer them have grown to a number and complexity that make it increasingly difficult for policymakers to interpret their effectiveness. Learning to Work offers a comprehensive assessment of efforts to move individuals into the workforce, and explains why their success has been limited.

    Learning to Work offers a complete history of job training in the United States, beginning with the Department of Labor's manpower development programs in the 1960s and detailing the expansion of services through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act in the 1970s and the Job Training Partnership Act in the 1980s. Other programs have sprung from the welfare system or were designed to meet the needs of various state and corporate development initiatives. The result is a complex mosaic of welfare-to-work, second-chance training, and experimental programs, all with their own goals,...

    Over the past three decades, job training programs have proliferated in response to mounting problems of unemployment, poverty, and expanding welfare rolls. These programs and the institutions that administer them have grown to a number and complexity that make it increasingly difficult for policymakers to interpret their effectiveness. Learning to Work offers a comprehensive assessment of efforts to move individuals into the workforce, and explains why their success has been limited.

    Learning to Work offers a complete history of job training in the United States, beginning with the Department of Labor's manpower development programs in the 1960s and detailing the expansion of services through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act in the 1970s and the Job Training Partnership Act in the 1980s. Other programs have sprung from the welfare system or were designed to meet the needs of various state and corporate development initiatives. The result is a complex mosaic of welfare-to-work, second-chance training, and experimental programs, all with their own goals, methodology, institutional administration, and funding.

    Learning to Work examines the findings of the most recent and sophisticated job training evaluations and what they reveal for each type of program. Which agendas prove most effective? Do their effects last over time? How well do programs benefit various populations, from welfare recipients to youths to displaced employees in need of retraining? The results are not encouraging. Many programs increase employment and reduce welfare dependence, but by meager increments, and the results are often temporary. On average most programs boosted earnings by only $200 to $500 per year, and even these small effects tended to decay after four or five years. Overall, job training programs moved very few individuals permanently off welfare, and provided no entry into a middle-class occupation or income.

    Learning to Work provides possible explanations for these poor results, citing the limited scope of individual programs, their lack of linkages to other programs or job-related opportunities, the absence of academic content or solid instructional methods, and their vulnerability to local political interference. Author Norton Grubb traces the root of these problems to the inherent separation of job training programs from the more successful educational system. He proposes consolidating the two domains into a clearly defined hierarchy of programs that combine school- and work-based instruction and employ proven methods of student-centered, project-based teaching. By linking programs tailored to every level of need and replacing short-term job training with long-term education, a system could be created to enable individuals to achieve increasing levels of economic success.

    The problems that job training programs address are too serious too ignore. Learning to Work tells us what's wrong with job training today, and offers a practical vision for reform. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Clagett, Craig A.
    Reference Type: Stakeholder Resource
    Year: 1997

    In an effort to reevaluate employment preparation in community college curricula, a review of recent research was conducted to identify the most valued skills in today's workforce. Among the abilities desired by today's employers are: (1) knowing how to learn; (2) competence in reading, writing, and computation; (3) effective listening and oral communication skills; (4) adaptability through creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management with strong self esteem and initiative; (6) interpersonal skills; and (7) leadership effectiveness. This comprehensive skill set, once required only of managers, but now applying to all levels of employment, appeared in several employer surveys, with an additional emphasis on communication and computer/technical skills. (Author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

    In an effort to reevaluate employment preparation in community college curricula, a review of recent research was conducted to identify the most valued skills in today's workforce. Among the abilities desired by today's employers are: (1) knowing how to learn; (2) competence in reading, writing, and computation; (3) effective listening and oral communication skills; (4) adaptability through creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management with strong self esteem and initiative; (6) interpersonal skills; and (7) leadership effectiveness. This comprehensive skill set, once required only of managers, but now applying to all levels of employment, appeared in several employer surveys, with an additional emphasis on communication and computer/technical skills. (Author abstract)

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

  • Individual Author: Kramer, Fredrica D.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    This document examines strategies for promoting job retention and career advancement for recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The document begins by considering the problems faced by less-skilled TANF recipients in finding, retaining, and advancing in jobs. Section 2 examines the following policy issues: (1) the aims of retention and advancement strategies; (2) the issue of whether retention and advancement strategies are separable; (3) recipients who should be targeted for services; (4) situations where services should be offered; (5) ways services should be delivered; and (6) program options (providing traditional support services; providing a broader range of services for the hard-to-place; using extended case management; mentoring; providing employer support; expanding access to good jobs; creating good jobs by filling niches; transforming job cyclers into strategic job movers; creating employer consortia; combining literacy, other basic education, and continued skills training with work; using public service employment and community work experience...

    This document examines strategies for promoting job retention and career advancement for recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The document begins by considering the problems faced by less-skilled TANF recipients in finding, retaining, and advancing in jobs. Section 2 examines the following policy issues: (1) the aims of retention and advancement strategies; (2) the issue of whether retention and advancement strategies are separable; (3) recipients who should be targeted for services; (4) situations where services should be offered; (5) ways services should be delivered; and (6) program options (providing traditional support services; providing a broader range of services for the hard-to-place; using extended case management; mentoring; providing employer support; expanding access to good jobs; creating good jobs by filling niches; transforming job cyclers into strategic job movers; creating employer consortia; combining literacy, other basic education, and continued skills training with work; using public service employment and community work experience programs). Section 3 reviews the findings of research about ways of expanding employment for welfare recipients. Section 4 profiles 21 innovative programs in the following categories: supporting new workers; supporting employers; and finding market niches and targeting high-wage jobs. The bibliography lists 10 resource contacts and 44 publications. (author abstract).

    The original hyperlink to this resource has been removed by the publisher. You may obtain a single use PDF by emailing the SSRC at ssrc@opressrc.org.

  • Individual Author: Marks, Ellen L.; Dewees, Sarah; Ouellette, Tammy; Koralek, Robin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1999

    The enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act in 1996 signaled a dramatic shift in the nation’s approach to providing assistance to those among the country’s neediest populations. The concept of welfare in the United States shifted from cash assistance to economic self-sufficiency. Rural welfare populations possess unique characteristics and face unique circumstances that will affect their ability to achieve the requirements and intent of welfare reform. To build knowledge and research about effective approaches in working with rural populations, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) awarded planning grants to ten states to help develop and study strategies to move rural families from welfare to work. Although there are extensive bodies of literature both on rural matters and on welfare-related matters, there is relatively little information about rural welfare issues. This report synthesizes available knowledge and, where appropriate, draws inferences from studies about the ways that welfare reform is likely to affect rural welfare to work...

    The enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act in 1996 signaled a dramatic shift in the nation’s approach to providing assistance to those among the country’s neediest populations. The concept of welfare in the United States shifted from cash assistance to economic self-sufficiency. Rural welfare populations possess unique characteristics and face unique circumstances that will affect their ability to achieve the requirements and intent of welfare reform. To build knowledge and research about effective approaches in working with rural populations, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) awarded planning grants to ten states to help develop and study strategies to move rural families from welfare to work. Although there are extensive bodies of literature both on rural matters and on welfare-related matters, there is relatively little information about rural welfare issues. This report synthesizes available knowledge and, where appropriate, draws inferences from studies about the ways that welfare reform is likely to affect rural welfare to work strategies. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Quinn, Jane
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1999

    Early adolescence is a time of burgeoning independence, autonomy, and focus on peers. It is also a time when individual interests, skills, and preferences become salient to young people. Not surprisingly, out-of-school programs designed to capture the interest of early teens are diverse in focus and varied in structure, ranging from sports teams to drop-in recreation centers, from museum apprenticeships to mentoring relationships between an individual teen and an adult. This article describes the array of various organizations that offer programs and services for youths in their early teens. It explains the philosophy of positive youth development that has emerged as a unifying theme in this long-standing but newly self-conscious field. Principles of best practice are reviewed, as are five key implementation challenges: increasing participation by youths; expanding access to programs, especially in low-income communities; improving funding; evaluating program effectiveness; and coordination with other youth services. The article closes with a discussion anticipating the new...

    Early adolescence is a time of burgeoning independence, autonomy, and focus on peers. It is also a time when individual interests, skills, and preferences become salient to young people. Not surprisingly, out-of-school programs designed to capture the interest of early teens are diverse in focus and varied in structure, ranging from sports teams to drop-in recreation centers, from museum apprenticeships to mentoring relationships between an individual teen and an adult. This article describes the array of various organizations that offer programs and services for youths in their early teens. It explains the philosophy of positive youth development that has emerged as a unifying theme in this long-standing but newly self-conscious field. Principles of best practice are reviewed, as are five key implementation challenges: increasing participation by youths; expanding access to programs, especially in low-income communities; improving funding; evaluating program effectiveness; and coordination with other youth services. The article closes with a discussion anticipating the new opportunities that accompany the attention and funding now going toward positive youth development programs that enrich the lives of young people through informal learning. (author abstract)

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