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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Wilson, William Julius
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1997

    Wilson, one of our foremost authorities on race and poverty, challenges decades of liberal and conservative pieties to look squarely at the devastating effects that joblessness has had on our urban ghettos. Marshaling a vast array of data and the personal stories of hundreds of men and women, Wilson persuasively argues that problems endemic to America's inner cities--from fatherless households to drugs and violent crime--stem directly from the disappearance of blue-collar jobs in the wake of a globalized economy. Wilson's achievement is to portray this crisis as one that affects all Americans, and to propose solutions whose benefits would be felt across our society. At a time when welfare is ending and our country's racial dialectic is more strained than ever, When Work Disappears is a sane, courageous, and desperately important work. (publisher abstract)

    Wilson, one of our foremost authorities on race and poverty, challenges decades of liberal and conservative pieties to look squarely at the devastating effects that joblessness has had on our urban ghettos. Marshaling a vast array of data and the personal stories of hundreds of men and women, Wilson persuasively argues that problems endemic to America's inner cities--from fatherless households to drugs and violent crime--stem directly from the disappearance of blue-collar jobs in the wake of a globalized economy. Wilson's achievement is to portray this crisis as one that affects all Americans, and to propose solutions whose benefits would be felt across our society. At a time when welfare is ending and our country's racial dialectic is more strained than ever, When Work Disappears is a sane, courageous, and desperately important work. (publisher abstract)

  • Individual Author: Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Holcomb, Pamela A.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    As states reform their welfare systems to emphasize work and self-sufficiency, they can draw on significant past experience with efforts to promote employment. Work and training programs for welfare recipients and other disadvantaged individuals have been operating in every state for nearly 30 years. This article summarizes findings from key evaluations of strategies to increase the employment and earnings of individuals. The article also reviews lessons about program design and management drawn from studies of program outcomes and implementation. Evaluations of net impact typically measure outcomes for randomly selected individuals who participated in programs, and compare those with outcomes for individuals who did not receive the treatment. Studies of program outcome and implementation analyze the effectiveness of entire programs in real-world operational settings. The evidence from net-impact evaluations shows that programs that encourage, help, or require welfare recipients to find jobs or participate in training or work-related activities can increase employment and...

    As states reform their welfare systems to emphasize work and self-sufficiency, they can draw on significant past experience with efforts to promote employment. Work and training programs for welfare recipients and other disadvantaged individuals have been operating in every state for nearly 30 years. This article summarizes findings from key evaluations of strategies to increase the employment and earnings of individuals. The article also reviews lessons about program design and management drawn from studies of program outcomes and implementation. Evaluations of net impact typically measure outcomes for randomly selected individuals who participated in programs, and compare those with outcomes for individuals who did not receive the treatment. Studies of program outcome and implementation analyze the effectiveness of entire programs in real-world operational settings. The evidence from net-impact evaluations shows that programs that encourage, help, or require welfare recipients to find jobs or participate in training or work-related activities can increase employment and earnings and in some cases reduce welfare costs. Even the most successful programs, however, yield only small gains in earnings that do not move most former welfare recipients out of poverty. The article also discusses critical policy and implementation issues that influence the effectiveness of welfare-to-work programs overall. It focuses on strategies for increasing rates of participation in the programs, for improving implementation, and for strengthening links with the local labor market, which ultimately determines the success or failure of any welfare-to-work program. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Institute for Research on Poverty
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    There has been very little agreement on the ultimate goals of out-of-home care. Tension has always existed between “child saving” and “family preservation,” and the emphasis has sometimes shifted dramatically between the two. The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (P.L. 96–272) came down decisively in favor of preserving families or of ensuring that children moved quickly from out-of-home care to permanent adoptive families. Out-of-home care was viewed as the least desirable alternative—perhaps a consequence of the failure to achieve permanent placement. As the caseload has grown and the controversy over ends has continued, it has become particularly critical to determine what we really know about out-of-home care and its long-term effects on the children served. It is frequently claimed, for example, that most of the long-term effects of foster care are negative: that former foster-care children are disproportionately represented among the homeless, the unemployed, the welfare-dependent, and the delinquent. But there are gaping holes in our knowledge of the...

    There has been very little agreement on the ultimate goals of out-of-home care. Tension has always existed between “child saving” and “family preservation,” and the emphasis has sometimes shifted dramatically between the two. The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (P.L. 96–272) came down decisively in favor of preserving families or of ensuring that children moved quickly from out-of-home care to permanent adoptive families. Out-of-home care was viewed as the least desirable alternative—perhaps a consequence of the failure to achieve permanent placement. As the caseload has grown and the controversy over ends has continued, it has become particularly critical to determine what we really know about out-of-home care and its long-term effects on the children served. It is frequently claimed, for example, that most of the long-term effects of foster care are negative: that former foster-care children are disproportionately represented among the homeless, the unemployed, the welfare-dependent, and the delinquent. But there are gaping holes in our knowledge of the circumstances and outcomes of children in foster care—in part, as is noted below, because of the absence of well-designed and commensurably oriented studies. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mann, Emily; Miedel, Wendy; Smokowski, Paul
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Early childhood interventions are now a popular strategy for counteracting social problems. They have high funding priority at all levels of government and strong support in local communities. Programs such as Even Start, Early Head Start, and other two-generational programs (that is, programs involving both mothers and children) have received considerable attention in the public and academic media. But there are many misunderstandings about what these programs are intended to do and what they have done. In this article, we review what is currently known about the effects of early childhood interventions for low-income and at-risk families, discuss some myths and realities, and highlight directions for future research and program development.

    Early childhood intervention is a general descriptor for a wide variety of programs. For this article, it is defined as the provision of educational, psychosocial, and health services, during any of the first eight years of life, to children who are at risk of poor outcomes because they face social-environmental disadvantages or have...

    Early childhood interventions are now a popular strategy for counteracting social problems. They have high funding priority at all levels of government and strong support in local communities. Programs such as Even Start, Early Head Start, and other two-generational programs (that is, programs involving both mothers and children) have received considerable attention in the public and academic media. But there are many misunderstandings about what these programs are intended to do and what they have done. In this article, we review what is currently known about the effects of early childhood interventions for low-income and at-risk families, discuss some myths and realities, and highlight directions for future research and program development.

    Early childhood intervention is a general descriptor for a wide variety of programs. For this article, it is defined as the provision of educational, psychosocial, and health services, during any of the first eight years of life, to children who are at risk of poor outcomes because they face social-environmental disadvantages or have developmental disabilities. These interventions are compensatory; they are designed to prevent problematic behavior such as academic underachievement, low motivation, or school failure in populations at risk. We focus primarily on programs for economically disadvantaged children aged about 2½ to 5. Such programs constitute the largest array of early childhood interventions. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Page-Adams, Deborah; Sherraden, Michael
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Asset building is helping impoverished families save for education, home ownership, microenterprise, and other community revitalization purposes. These community development programs are built in part on the idea that assets have multiple positive effects on well-being. A system of individual development accounts is often used to structure and subsidize asset accumulation. Studies that evaluate the implementation, performance, and effects of asset building will be critical in assessing the potential of community development based on special savings accounts. This article summarizes findings from studies addressing the effects of assets on personal well-being, economic security, civic behavior, women's status, and children's well-being. Implications for demonstration and evaluation of asset-based community revitalization initiatives are discussed. (Author abstract)

    Asset building is helping impoverished families save for education, home ownership, microenterprise, and other community revitalization purposes. These community development programs are built in part on the idea that assets have multiple positive effects on well-being. A system of individual development accounts is often used to structure and subsidize asset accumulation. Studies that evaluate the implementation, performance, and effects of asset building will be critical in assessing the potential of community development based on special savings accounts. This article summarizes findings from studies addressing the effects of assets on personal well-being, economic security, civic behavior, women's status, and children's well-being. Implications for demonstration and evaluation of asset-based community revitalization initiatives are discussed. (Author abstract)

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