Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Friedlander, Daniel; Burtless, Gary
    Reference Type: Book Chapter/Book
    Year: 1995

    With welfare reforms tested in almost every state and plans for a comprehensive federal overall on the horizon, it is increasingly important for Americans to understand how policy changes are likely to affect the lives of welfare recipients. Five Years After tells the story of what happened to the welfare recipients who participated in the influential welfare-to-work experiments conducted by several states in the mid-1980s. The authors review the distinctive goals and procedures of evaluations performed in Arkansas, Baltimore, San Diego, and Virginia, and then examine five years of follow-up data to determine whether the initial positive impact on employment, earnings, and welfare costs held up over time. The results were surprisingly consistent. Low-cost programs that saved money by getting individuals into jobs quickly did little to reduce poverty in the long run. Only higher-cost educational programs enabled welfare recipients to hold down jobs successfully and stay off welfare.

    Five Years After ends speculation about the viability of the first generation of employment...

    With welfare reforms tested in almost every state and plans for a comprehensive federal overall on the horizon, it is increasingly important for Americans to understand how policy changes are likely to affect the lives of welfare recipients. Five Years After tells the story of what happened to the welfare recipients who participated in the influential welfare-to-work experiments conducted by several states in the mid-1980s. The authors review the distinctive goals and procedures of evaluations performed in Arkansas, Baltimore, San Diego, and Virginia, and then examine five years of follow-up data to determine whether the initial positive impact on employment, earnings, and welfare costs held up over time. The results were surprisingly consistent. Low-cost programs that saved money by getting individuals into jobs quickly did little to reduce poverty in the long run. Only higher-cost educational programs enabled welfare recipients to hold down jobs successfully and stay off welfare.

    Five Years After ends speculation about the viability of the first generation of employment programs for welfare recipients, delineates the hard choices that must be made among competing approaches, and provides a well-documented foundation for building more comprehensive programs for the next generation. A sobering tale for welfare reformers of all political persuasions, this book poses a serious challenge to anyone who promises to end welfare dependency by cutting welfare budgets. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Meyer, Daniel ; Cancian, Maria
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    Much previous research has focused on the length of welfare spells and returns to welfare following an exit. Few quantitative studies have looked at broader indicators of the economic wellbeing of those who have exited AFDC. In this paper we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NSLY) to trace welfare use, poverty status, and primary sources of income in the five years following an exit from welfare. We find that while there is a trend toward improved economic status over time, 40 percent of women remain poor five years after exit. Women with more advantaged family backgrounds, those with fewer children, or with more education at exit are more likely to consistently escape poverty. Median income increases over the first five years from about $10,500 to about $15,000 (1992 dollars). Own earnings are the most prevalent income source, followed by spouse’s earnings, and mean-tested transfers. (author abstract)

    Much previous research has focused on the length of welfare spells and returns to welfare following an exit. Few quantitative studies have looked at broader indicators of the economic wellbeing of those who have exited AFDC. In this paper we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NSLY) to trace welfare use, poverty status, and primary sources of income in the five years following an exit from welfare. We find that while there is a trend toward improved economic status over time, 40 percent of women remain poor five years after exit. Women with more advantaged family backgrounds, those with fewer children, or with more education at exit are more likely to consistently escape poverty. Median income increases over the first five years from about $10,500 to about $15,000 (1992 dollars). Own earnings are the most prevalent income source, followed by spouse’s earnings, and mean-tested transfers. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kingsley, G. Thomas
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Federal housing assistance was seldom mentioned in the mid-1990s’ debate over devolution of America’s social safety net. Yet in FY 1995, federal outlays for housing assistance to the poor ($19 billion) exceeded those for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) by $7 billion.

    A sizable share (about one-fifth) of households that receive AFDC also benefit from federal housing subsidies administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Moreover, those receiving HUD assistance account for a much larger share of long-term welfare recipients—those likely to have the most difficulty finding and retaining employment—than welfare families that don’t receive federal housing assistance. Among AFDC beneficiaries in 1994, for example, the median cumulative period of welfare recipiency for those who also received HUD assistance was 57 months; for those not receiving HUD assistance, the comparable period was 37 months.

    Whether or not welfare recipients also receive housing assistance will greatly influence the immediate circumstances and, possibly,...

    Federal housing assistance was seldom mentioned in the mid-1990s’ debate over devolution of America’s social safety net. Yet in FY 1995, federal outlays for housing assistance to the poor ($19 billion) exceeded those for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) by $7 billion.

    A sizable share (about one-fifth) of households that receive AFDC also benefit from federal housing subsidies administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Moreover, those receiving HUD assistance account for a much larger share of long-term welfare recipients—those likely to have the most difficulty finding and retaining employment—than welfare families that don’t receive federal housing assistance. Among AFDC beneficiaries in 1994, for example, the median cumulative period of welfare recipiency for those who also received HUD assistance was 57 months; for those not receiving HUD assistance, the comparable period was 37 months.

    Whether or not welfare recipients also receive housing assistance will greatly influence the immediate circumstances and, possibly, the longer-term opportunities of those directly affected by welfare reforms and cutbacks in related social programs. Welfare reform may also have a marked impact on the financial condition of HUD’s housing programs. Tremendous variations in HUD assistance across states and localities (explained below), together with the new discretion states have been given to run their own welfare programs, mean that housing assistance and welfare interactions at the local level will significantly affect state responses to devolution.

    What are the possible outcomes of interactions between housing assistance and welfare reform? We preface our speculation with a discussion about how federal housing assistance differs from many other safety net programs, the forms it takes, who it serves, and the relevancy of housing reforms to welfare reform. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Moore, Kristin A.; Driscoll, Anne K.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Despite the importance of anticipating how children may be affected by policies that move mothers off welfare and into employment, as the article by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue points out, few research studies have addressed this critical policy question. To help fill that gap, this article presents the results of a new study using national survey data to examine child outcomes among families that had previously received welfare. About half the families studied had mothers who remained at home, the others were working at varying wage levels.

    The findings reported here echo themes discussed in the two preceding articles. Maternal employment does not appear to undermine children's social or cognitive development from ages 5 to 14, and it may yield advantages. Children whose mothers earned more than $5.00 per hour, particularly, had somewhat better outcomes than others. The authors emphasize, however, that background characteristics specific to the mothers who chose employment contributed to these positive outcomes. The authors add that it would be risky to apply...

    Despite the importance of anticipating how children may be affected by policies that move mothers off welfare and into employment, as the article by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue points out, few research studies have addressed this critical policy question. To help fill that gap, this article presents the results of a new study using national survey data to examine child outcomes among families that had previously received welfare. About half the families studied had mothers who remained at home, the others were working at varying wage levels.

    The findings reported here echo themes discussed in the two preceding articles. Maternal employment does not appear to undermine children's social or cognitive development from ages 5 to 14, and it may yield advantages. Children whose mothers earned more than $5.00 per hour, particularly, had somewhat better outcomes than others. The authors emphasize, however, that background characteristics specific to the mothers who chose employment contributed to these positive outcomes. The authors add that it would be risky to apply these generalizations based on these findings to families forced into employment by welfare reform. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Berlin, Gordon; Bancroft, Wendy; Card, David; Lin, Winston; Robins, Philip K.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1998

    The Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) is a large, innovative social demonstration and research project in Canada that tests an employment alternative to welfare. It makes work pay by offering a generous earnings supplement to long-term, single-parent welfare recipients who find full-time jobs and leave the Income Assistance (IA) welfare system. SSP seeks to answer this question: If work paid better than welfare, would welfare-dependent single parents take jobs and leave the welfare rolls?

    The project was also designed from the outset to learn about the potential unintended effects of welfare-based work incentives. This special study, described here, answers the question: If SSP is effective, will its generous earnings supplement encourage otherwise ineligible people to apply for or remain on welfare in order to qualify for its benefits? (author abstract)

    The Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) is a large, innovative social demonstration and research project in Canada that tests an employment alternative to welfare. It makes work pay by offering a generous earnings supplement to long-term, single-parent welfare recipients who find full-time jobs and leave the Income Assistance (IA) welfare system. SSP seeks to answer this question: If work paid better than welfare, would welfare-dependent single parents take jobs and leave the welfare rolls?

    The project was also designed from the outset to learn about the potential unintended effects of welfare-based work incentives. This special study, described here, answers the question: If SSP is effective, will its generous earnings supplement encourage otherwise ineligible people to apply for or remain on welfare in order to qualify for its benefits? (author abstract)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1995 to 2018

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations