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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Bradbury, Bruce
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2005

    This paper uses the 'adult goods' method to estimate the full costs of children. Full costs include both expenditure and time costs. Adult personal time (comprising pure leisure, sleep and other personal care) is used as the adult good. Previous research has shown that the presence of children in the household leads to a reduction in adult personal time. This paper develops a simple household economic model to show how this information can be used to develop an equivalence scale for adult consumption that takes account of both the expenditure and time costs of children. Preliminary estimates using Australian data suggest a very large cost. A couple with two children (one of which is in pre-school) require an income around 2.7 times as large as a couple with no children in order for the adults to have the same consumption level. The full cost of children appears to decline with age (despite the expenditure cost rising). The paper discusses the limitations of the adult good method and considers the broader welfare implications of these costs. (author abstract)

    This paper uses the 'adult goods' method to estimate the full costs of children. Full costs include both expenditure and time costs. Adult personal time (comprising pure leisure, sleep and other personal care) is used as the adult good. Previous research has shown that the presence of children in the household leads to a reduction in adult personal time. This paper develops a simple household economic model to show how this information can be used to develop an equivalence scale for adult consumption that takes account of both the expenditure and time costs of children. Preliminary estimates using Australian data suggest a very large cost. A couple with two children (one of which is in pre-school) require an income around 2.7 times as large as a couple with no children in order for the adults to have the same consumption level. The full cost of children appears to decline with age (despite the expenditure cost rising). The paper discusses the limitations of the adult good method and considers the broader welfare implications of these costs. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bollinger, Christopher R.; Nicoletti, Cheti; Pudney, Stephen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    To measure poverty, incomes must be equivalized across households with different structures. In this paper, we use a very flexible ordered response model to analyze the relationship between income, demographic structure and subjective assessments of financial wellbeing drawn from the 1991-2008 British Household Panel Survey. Our results suggest the existence of large scale economies within marital/cohabiting couples, but substantial diseconomies from the addition of children or further adults. This pattern contrasts sharply with commonly-used equivalence scales, and is consistent with explanations in terms of the capital requirements associated with additions to the core couple. (author abstract)

    To measure poverty, incomes must be equivalized across households with different structures. In this paper, we use a very flexible ordered response model to analyze the relationship between income, demographic structure and subjective assessments of financial wellbeing drawn from the 1991-2008 British Household Panel Survey. Our results suggest the existence of large scale economies within marital/cohabiting couples, but substantial diseconomies from the addition of children or further adults. This pattern contrasts sharply with commonly-used equivalence scales, and is consistent with explanations in terms of the capital requirements associated with additions to the core couple. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bernard van Leer Foundation
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2014

    This edition of Early Childhood Matters addresses the theme of responsive parenting, and in particular the potential for responsive parenting programmes to reduce the incidence of violence against young children. Articles examine the state of research, experiences in adapting parenting programmes to new cultural contexts, and the experiences of particular projects, with contributions from Jordan, Jamaica, Canada, the Netherlands, Brazil, Peru, Israel, Turkey and the United States. (Author introduction)

    This edition of Early Childhood Matters addresses the theme of responsive parenting, and in particular the potential for responsive parenting programmes to reduce the incidence of violence against young children. Articles examine the state of research, experiences in adapting parenting programmes to new cultural contexts, and the experiences of particular projects, with contributions from Jordan, Jamaica, Canada, the Netherlands, Brazil, Peru, Israel, Turkey and the United States. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Grimshaw, Damian; Rubery, Jill
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    The study is organized as follows:
    Part I discusses the measurement issues, especially associated with statistical modelling of the motherhood pay gap, and presents headline results for a range of low-, middle- and high-income countries. It also addresses evidence of a wage premium for fathers.

    Part II presents a critical analysis of six core methodological issues drawing on studies from multiple disciplinary approaches.

    Part III assesses the merits of competing economic and sociological explanations for the motherhood pay gap, with a focus on productivity-related explanations on the one hand and accounts that emphasize the gendered nature of institutions and sex discrimination on the other.

    Part IV investigates the impact of a country’s institutional environment with a particular emphasis on its welfare and family system.

    Part V sets out six major policy recommendations and considers issues for future research. (author abstract)

    The study is organized as follows:
    Part I discusses the measurement issues, especially associated with statistical modelling of the motherhood pay gap, and presents headline results for a range of low-, middle- and high-income countries. It also addresses evidence of a wage premium for fathers.

    Part II presents a critical analysis of six core methodological issues drawing on studies from multiple disciplinary approaches.

    Part III assesses the merits of competing economic and sociological explanations for the motherhood pay gap, with a focus on productivity-related explanations on the one hand and accounts that emphasize the gendered nature of institutions and sex discrimination on the other.

    Part IV investigates the impact of a country’s institutional environment with a particular emphasis on its welfare and family system.

    Part V sets out six major policy recommendations and considers issues for future research. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Institute for Research on Poverty - University of Wisconsin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Child maltreatment happens in all kinds of families, but low income is the most consistent predictor. This holds true in the United States and many other nations and the correlation is substantiated by decades of research. But new research goes beyond association to reveal a causal relationship between poverty and child maltreatment. A set of studies published in the journal Children and Youth Services Review shows that poverty exists as both a cause and consequence of child abuse and neglect. Just as child maltreatment is most prevalent in poor families, mistreated children often struggle to achieve economic success as adults. This brief describes the latest statistics on child maltreatment as reported to child protective services (CPS) agencies and goes on to highlight related findings from a limited selection of the studies included in the journal. (Author abstract)

    Child maltreatment happens in all kinds of families, but low income is the most consistent predictor. This holds true in the United States and many other nations and the correlation is substantiated by decades of research. But new research goes beyond association to reveal a causal relationship between poverty and child maltreatment. A set of studies published in the journal Children and Youth Services Review shows that poverty exists as both a cause and consequence of child abuse and neglect. Just as child maltreatment is most prevalent in poor families, mistreated children often struggle to achieve economic success as adults. This brief describes the latest statistics on child maltreatment as reported to child protective services (CPS) agencies and goes on to highlight related findings from a limited selection of the studies included in the journal. (Author abstract)

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