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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: King, Elisabeth; Elliott, Mark
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2000

    This report describes family centered employment strategies. It begins with a look at the economics of families in poverty and provides a brief outline of the many ways in which employment and training programs have begun to work with families. The report then examines the work of four employment programs now offering employment services to families: (1) a transitional employment program; (2) a refugee resettlement program; (3) a youth employment program; and (4) a faith-based program. The key elements that have enabled these programs to provide services successfully are discussed. The major federal programs used to meet the employment needs of the poor, however, remain focused principally on serving individuals. Recent Clinton administration proposals indicate that the family is beginning to occupy a more central place in the discussion of federal employment programs. Until public resources are available, it seems unlikely that many organizations will make the extraordinary effort to combine multiple revenue sources needed to serve families' employment needs successfully. An...

    This report describes family centered employment strategies. It begins with a look at the economics of families in poverty and provides a brief outline of the many ways in which employment and training programs have begun to work with families. The report then examines the work of four employment programs now offering employment services to families: (1) a transitional employment program; (2) a refugee resettlement program; (3) a youth employment program; and (4) a faith-based program. The key elements that have enabled these programs to provide services successfully are discussed. The major federal programs used to meet the employment needs of the poor, however, remain focused principally on serving individuals. Recent Clinton administration proposals indicate that the family is beginning to occupy a more central place in the discussion of federal employment programs. Until public resources are available, it seems unlikely that many organizations will make the extraordinary effort to combine multiple revenue sources needed to serve families' employment needs successfully. An appendix describes the four programs in detail.

  • Individual Author: Campbell, Frances A.; Ramey, Craig T.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Sparling, Joseph; Miller-Johnson, Shari
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    The high-risk infants who initially enrolled in the Abecedarian Project, a longitudinal prospective study of the benefits of early childhood educational intervention within a child care setting, were followed up as young adults (age 21 years). One hundred-eleven infants were in the original sample; 104 took part in the follow up. Treatment was provided in 2 phases: during preschool and in the primary grades. Participants received either both phases, 1, but not both, or neither. Assignment to groups was random. Those in the preschool treatment group earned significantly higher scores on intellectual and academic measures as young adults, attained significantly more years of total education, were more likely to attend a 4-year college, and showed a reduction in teenaged pregnancy compared with preschool controls. Preschool treatment was associated with educationally meaningful effect sizes on reading and math skills that persisted into adulthood. School-age treatment served to maintain preschool benefits for reading, but by itself, the effects were generally weaker than those of...

    The high-risk infants who initially enrolled in the Abecedarian Project, a longitudinal prospective study of the benefits of early childhood educational intervention within a child care setting, were followed up as young adults (age 21 years). One hundred-eleven infants were in the original sample; 104 took part in the follow up. Treatment was provided in 2 phases: during preschool and in the primary grades. Participants received either both phases, 1, but not both, or neither. Assignment to groups was random. Those in the preschool treatment group earned significantly higher scores on intellectual and academic measures as young adults, attained significantly more years of total education, were more likely to attend a 4-year college, and showed a reduction in teenaged pregnancy compared with preschool controls. Preschool treatment was associated with educationally meaningful effect sizes on reading and math skills that persisted into adulthood. School-age treatment served to maintain preschool benefits for reading, but by itself, the effects were generally weaker than those of the preschool program. Statistically significant differences in the attainment of full economic independence were not found at this stage, but would not be expected among young adults still attending school. The incidence of self-reported violence and lawbreaking was not significantly reduced, although trends in the data favored the treated group. The reported incidence of marijuana use was significantly less among treated individuals. The positive findings with respect to academic skills and increased years of post-secondary education support policies favoring early childhood programs for poor children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tao, Fumiyo; Alamprese, Judith A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2003

    The Family Independence Initiative (FII) was developed by the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) in 1997 to test the feasibility of implementing work-focused family literacy programs as an educational intervention to assist welfare recipients in meeting the requirements of welfare reform. The FII enhanced the services provided in NCFL’s comprehensive family literacy program, which consists of early childhood education, adult basic and literacy education, Parent and Child Together (PACT) Time, and Parent Time, by incorporating work-preparation and work-experience activities into the adult education component of family literacy. The assumption was that current or former welfare recipients could simultaneously develop their basic skills and learn strategies for obtaining and retaining employment as part of their family literacy experience.

    A key factor prompting the development of FII was the policy changes that were part of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of...

    The Family Independence Initiative (FII) was developed by the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) in 1997 to test the feasibility of implementing work-focused family literacy programs as an educational intervention to assist welfare recipients in meeting the requirements of welfare reform. The FII enhanced the services provided in NCFL’s comprehensive family literacy program, which consists of early childhood education, adult basic and literacy education, Parent and Child Together (PACT) Time, and Parent Time, by incorporating work-preparation and work-experience activities into the adult education component of family literacy. The assumption was that current or former welfare recipients could simultaneously develop their basic skills and learn strategies for obtaining and retaining employment as part of their family literacy experience.

    A key factor prompting the development of FII was the policy changes that were part of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. This law shifted the focus of the nation’s welfare program from the provision of cash assistance to low-income parents to the promotion of work-preparation services and economic self-sufficiency. Two new mandates were instituted under TANF: a five-year, lifetime limit on adults’ eligibility to receive welfare cash assistance and a requirement that recipients participate in work-preparation services in order to receive the cash assistance. As social programs serving welfare recipients were preparing to address these policy changes, there were few models of service delivery available to help program participants obtain and retain employment, earn sufficient income, and support the economic needs of their families without government cash assistance. As a result, a number of state and local initiatives were developed to explore different welfare-to-work strategies to move welfare recipients into employment…

    The FII Follow-up Study had the following objectives:

    • To describe FII adult participants’ employment and educational outcomes, parenting practices, and social and community involvement one year after FII participation;
    • To describe the employment and educational experiences of participants during the two years after their participation in FII; and
    • To describe adult participants’ perceptions of what they learned from FII and its effects on their lives.

    (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig; Dole, Nancy
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2006

    Household food insecurity has been associated with several negative health outcomes, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of household food insecurity during pregnancy. This study was conducted as part of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition prospective cohort study to identify risk factors of preterm birth. The USDA 18-item scale was used to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of poverty. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and psychosocial predictors of household food insecurity. Among 606 pregnant women, 75% were from fully food-secure, 15% from marginally food-secure, and 10% from food-insecure households. Women from marginally food-secure and food-insecure households had significantly less income, less education, and were older than women from fully food-secure households. In bivariate analysis, all psychosocial factors were significantly associated with household food insecurity and showed a dose-response relation with increasing food insecurity....

    Household food insecurity has been associated with several negative health outcomes, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of household food insecurity during pregnancy. This study was conducted as part of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition prospective cohort study to identify risk factors of preterm birth. The USDA 18-item scale was used to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of poverty. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and psychosocial predictors of household food insecurity. Among 606 pregnant women, 75% were from fully food-secure, 15% from marginally food-secure, and 10% from food-insecure households. Women from marginally food-secure and food-insecure households had significantly less income, less education, and were older than women from fully food-secure households. In bivariate analysis, all psychosocial factors were significantly associated with household food insecurity and showed a dose-response relation with increasing food insecurity. Socioeconomic and demographic predictors for household food insecurity were income, black race, and age. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables, psychosocial indicators of perceived stress, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms, and a locus of control attributed to chance were positively associated with any household food insecurity. Conversely, self-esteem and mastery were inversely associated with any household food insecurity. Psychosocial factors as well as socioeconomic and demographic indicators are associated with household food insecurity among pregnant women; however, the direction of causation between psychosocial indicators and food insecurity cannot be determined in these data. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Ehrle Macomber, Jennifer; Cuccaro-Alamin, Stephanie; Duncan, Dean; Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla; Vericker, Tracy; Pergamit, Mike; Needell, Barbara; Kum, Hye-Chung; Stewart, Joy; Lee, Chung-Kwon ; Barth, Richard P.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    This study examines employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties in three states: California, Minnesota, and North Carolina. The study linked child welfare, Unemployment Insurance (UI), and public assistance administrative data to assess outcomes. Results suggest that youth who age out of foster care continue to experience poor employment outcomes at age 24 and generally follow one of four employment trajectories as they transition to adulthood.(author abstract)

    This study examines employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties in three states: California, Minnesota, and North Carolina. The study linked child welfare, Unemployment Insurance (UI), and public assistance administrative data to assess outcomes. Results suggest that youth who age out of foster care continue to experience poor employment outcomes at age 24 and generally follow one of four employment trajectories as they transition to adulthood.(author abstract)

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