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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Hardy, Janet B. ; Shapiro, Sam ; Astone, Nan M. ; Miller, Therese L. ; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne ; Hilton, Sterling C.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 1997

    Objectives. Data from recent interviews with 1758 inner-city children, born between 1960 to 1965 and followed with their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study to age 27 to 33 years, were used to address two related questions. 1) Is maternal age, across the reproductive age range, a determinant of child's adult outcome? and 2) Do covariates of maternal age at delivery reduce or eliminate the effect of maternal age on child's adult outcome?

    Methods. An intergenerational life course model of development identified significant maternal and child characteristics at birth associated with the child's self-sufficient outcomes in adulthood: education (more than or equal to a high school diploma); financial independence of public support; and delay of first birth until age 20 or older. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify independent relationships between dependent and independent variables and to adjust the outcomes to compensate for the effect of possible confounding of maternal age at delivery by maternal education,...

    Objectives. Data from recent interviews with 1758 inner-city children, born between 1960 to 1965 and followed with their mothers in the Pathways to Adulthood Study to age 27 to 33 years, were used to address two related questions. 1) Is maternal age, across the reproductive age range, a determinant of child's adult outcome? and 2) Do covariates of maternal age at delivery reduce or eliminate the effect of maternal age on child's adult outcome?

    Methods. An intergenerational life course model of development identified significant maternal and child characteristics at birth associated with the child's self-sufficient outcomes in adulthood: education (more than or equal to a high school diploma); financial independence of public support; and delay of first birth until age 20 or older. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to identify independent relationships between dependent and independent variables and to adjust the outcomes to compensate for the effect of possible confounding of maternal age at delivery by maternal education, parity, poverty status, and the child's race and gender.

    Results.  Each covariate was independently associated with maternal age at delivery. Adjustment for their effects reduced, but did not eliminate, the association between maternal age at birth and the child's outcome at age 27 to 33 years. As a group, children of the oldest mothers (≥25 years of age) had the most favorable outcomes, and those of teenage mothers (<20 years of age) had the least favorable outcomes; 22% of daughters and 6% of sons of the oldest mothers versus 38% and 18%, respectively, of the youngest mothers became teenage parents.

    Conclusion.  The mother's age at delivery is an independent determinant of the child's adult status. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hess, Christine R.; Papas, Mia A.; Black, Maureen M.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    OBJECTIVE: To use Nath et al.'s (1991) conceptual model of adolescent parenting to examine the relationship between resiliency factors measured shortly after delivery and maternal parenting behavior at 6 months.

    METHOD: We recruited 181 first-time, adolescent African American mothers at delivery. Data on resiliency factors (maturity, self-esteem, and mother-grandmother relationships) were collected when infants were 1-4 weeks of age. Data on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction were examined through observations and self-report at 6 months.

    RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the longitudinal impact of resiliency factors on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction. Maternal maturity, positive self-esteem, and positive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships (characterized by autonomy and mutuality) were associated with better parenting outcomes. Maternal parenting satisfaction was lowest when infants were temperamentally difficult and mothers and grandmothers had a...

    OBJECTIVE: To use Nath et al.'s (1991) conceptual model of adolescent parenting to examine the relationship between resiliency factors measured shortly after delivery and maternal parenting behavior at 6 months.

    METHOD: We recruited 181 first-time, adolescent African American mothers at delivery. Data on resiliency factors (maturity, self-esteem, and mother-grandmother relationships) were collected when infants were 1-4 weeks of age. Data on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction were examined through observations and self-report at 6 months.

    RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the longitudinal impact of resiliency factors on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction. Maternal maturity, positive self-esteem, and positive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships (characterized by autonomy and mutuality) were associated with better parenting outcomes. Maternal parenting satisfaction was lowest when infants were temperamentally difficult and mothers and grandmothers had a confrontational relationship.

    CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal associations between mother-grandmother relationships at delivery and parental behavior and satisfaction 6 months later may suggest an intergenerational transmission of parenting style. Recommendations are provided for intervention programs to enhance mother-grandmother relationships in contexts where adolescents are required to live with a guardian to receive government assistance. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Rogers-Dillon, Robin; Haney, Lynne
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2005

    The issue of dependency permeates the American welfare discourse. Although most of the 50 low-income women interviewed in this research study echoed the distain of dependency found in the broader welfare discourse, they overwhelmingly described actively cultivating some forms of interdependence. For example, many of the women used state childcare vouchers to channel resources into their family networks while simultaneously adhering to an ethic of family care for children. They found this reliance on state resources and family to be desirable—and in fact a sign of “independence”—because it enhanced the economic security of their families while preserving the physical and emotional safety of their children. In contrast, the women tended to view reliance on men as undesirable—a form of “dependence”—because it did not enhance their perceptions of security. Thus while the women talked about becoming independent, in fact they cultivated selective interdependencies to minimize their economic, emotional and physical vulnerability. Independence for our respondents was not a lack of...

    The issue of dependency permeates the American welfare discourse. Although most of the 50 low-income women interviewed in this research study echoed the distain of dependency found in the broader welfare discourse, they overwhelmingly described actively cultivating some forms of interdependence. For example, many of the women used state childcare vouchers to channel resources into their family networks while simultaneously adhering to an ethic of family care for children. They found this reliance on state resources and family to be desirable—and in fact a sign of “independence”—because it enhanced the economic security of their families while preserving the physical and emotional safety of their children. In contrast, the women tended to view reliance on men as undesirable—a form of “dependence”—because it did not enhance their perceptions of security. Thus while the women talked about becoming independent, in fact they cultivated selective interdependencies to minimize their economic, emotional and physical vulnerability. Independence for our respondents was not a lack of reliance on others but rather the ability to provide safety and security for themselves and their children. This analysis may shed some light on why welfare reform efforts aimed at increasing marriage rates have been less successful than those aimed at increasing employment rates. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Martinson, Karin; Trutko, John; Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Holcomb, Pamela A.; Barnow, Burt S.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2007

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Partners for Fragile Families (PFF) demonstration projects. Operating in 13 sites across the country, PFF provided a range of services aimed at increasing the capacity of young, economically disadvantaged fathers in becoming financial and emotional resources to their children and sought to reduce poverty and welfare dependence. The report examines the programs’ structure and institutional partnerships; participant characteristics; recruitment and enrollment efforts; the nature of employment, peer support, parenting, and child support-related services provided through the initiatives; and implementation challenges and lessons. (author abstract)

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Partners for Fragile Families (PFF) demonstration projects. Operating in 13 sites across the country, PFF provided a range of services aimed at increasing the capacity of young, economically disadvantaged fathers in becoming financial and emotional resources to their children and sought to reduce poverty and welfare dependence. The report examines the programs’ structure and institutional partnerships; participant characteristics; recruitment and enrollment efforts; the nature of employment, peer support, parenting, and child support-related services provided through the initiatives; and implementation challenges and lessons. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Furstenberg, Frank F.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2008

    Teen pregnancy is back in the news. After 15 years of decline, the trend in teen birth rates ticked upward in 2006. Coupled with the ongoing media spotlight on the popular film Juno and the pregnancy of Britney Spears’ younger sister, we’re once again wringing our collective hands over kids having kids. But are these concerns really warranted? To what extent does teen pregnancy lead to mothers’ and children’s long-term poverty? Have policies adopted to deter early childbearing been effective in discouraging teens from having children before they are ready to shoulder the responsibilities of parenthood? To answer these questions, it’s necessary to put the issue in proper historical context, and to cast a sober eye on existing policies that were employed to keep rates of teenage childbearing low. (author introduction)

    Teen pregnancy is back in the news. After 15 years of decline, the trend in teen birth rates ticked upward in 2006. Coupled with the ongoing media spotlight on the popular film Juno and the pregnancy of Britney Spears’ younger sister, we’re once again wringing our collective hands over kids having kids. But are these concerns really warranted? To what extent does teen pregnancy lead to mothers’ and children’s long-term poverty? Have policies adopted to deter early childbearing been effective in discouraging teens from having children before they are ready to shoulder the responsibilities of parenthood? To answer these questions, it’s necessary to put the issue in proper historical context, and to cast a sober eye on existing policies that were employed to keep rates of teenage childbearing low. (author introduction)

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