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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Office of Policy Planning and Research, United States Department of Labor
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1965

    The most difficult fact for white Americans to understand is that in these terms the circumstances of the Negro American community in recent years has probably been getting worse, not better.

    Indices of dollars of income, standards of living, and years of education deceive. The gap between the Negro and most other groups in American society is widening.

    The fundamental problem, in which this is most clearly the case, is that of family structure. The evidence — not final, but powerfully persuasive — is that the Negro family in the urban ghettos is crumbling. A middle class group has managed to save itself, but for vast numbers of the unskilled, poorly educated city working class the fabric of conventional social relationships has all but disintegrated. There are indications that the situation may have been arrested in the past few years, but the general post war trend is unmistakable. So long as this situation persists, the cycle of poverty and disadvantage will continue to repeat itself.

    The thesis of this paper is that these events, in combination,...

    The most difficult fact for white Americans to understand is that in these terms the circumstances of the Negro American community in recent years has probably been getting worse, not better.

    Indices of dollars of income, standards of living, and years of education deceive. The gap between the Negro and most other groups in American society is widening.

    The fundamental problem, in which this is most clearly the case, is that of family structure. The evidence — not final, but powerfully persuasive — is that the Negro family in the urban ghettos is crumbling. A middle class group has managed to save itself, but for vast numbers of the unskilled, poorly educated city working class the fabric of conventional social relationships has all but disintegrated. There are indications that the situation may have been arrested in the past few years, but the general post war trend is unmistakable. So long as this situation persists, the cycle of poverty and disadvantage will continue to repeat itself.

    The thesis of this paper is that these events, in combination, confront the nation with a new kind of problem. Measures that have worked in the past, or would work for most groups in the present, will not work here. A national effort is required that will give a unity of purpose to the many activities of the Federal government in this area, directed to a new kind of national goal: the establishment of a stable Negro family structure. (author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Mason, Patrick L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    This literature review gathers evidence on the relationship between African American male economic potential in the formal sector of the economy and transitions in African American family structure and marital stability. This review also provides insight into the crime, unemployment, family structure, and race debate. Competing theoretical explanations of transitions in family structure and marital stability are examined. Specifically, we compare the "African American structural model" with the "new household economics" and the sociological tradition that alleges that African American family life is pathological. (author abstract)

    This literature review gathers evidence on the relationship between African American male economic potential in the formal sector of the economy and transitions in African American family structure and marital stability. This review also provides insight into the crime, unemployment, family structure, and race debate. Competing theoretical explanations of transitions in family structure and marital stability are examined. Specifically, we compare the "African American structural model" with the "new household economics" and the sociological tradition that alleges that African American family life is pathological. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Garasky, Steven
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1996

    In examining teenage and young adult employment, this study has three objectives. It seeks to throw light on reasons that some teenagers work and some do not. It explores the effect teenage labor force participation has on teenage educational attainment. Finally, it considers the longer-term effects of early employment on young adult work and wages. Four cross-sectional analyses are performed separately for male and female cohorts of original National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) respondents who were aged 14 through 16 at the first interview in 1979. These analyses take the fullest advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data, using information from every year available, 1979 through 1993. Childhood family structure is found to have little impact on teenage employment and timely high school graduation. However, there is evidence that teenage employment has positive effects on high school graduation and later labor force participation. (author abstract)

    In examining teenage and young adult employment, this study has three objectives. It seeks to throw light on reasons that some teenagers work and some do not. It explores the effect teenage labor force participation has on teenage educational attainment. Finally, it considers the longer-term effects of early employment on young adult work and wages. Four cross-sectional analyses are performed separately for male and female cohorts of original National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) respondents who were aged 14 through 16 at the first interview in 1979. These analyses take the fullest advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data, using information from every year available, 1979 through 1993. Childhood family structure is found to have little impact on teenage employment and timely high school graduation. However, there is evidence that teenage employment has positive effects on high school graduation and later labor force participation. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Geen, Rob; Boots, Shelley W.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    Child welfare services encompass a broad range of activities, including investigating alleged incidents of abuse and neglect, protecting victimized children, supporting and preserving families, and assisting children who must be temporarily or permanently removed from their parents' homes. Child welfare agencies are an integral part of the public social services safety net. They often act as the provider of last resort since state laws assign them legal responsibility for ensuring the safety of all vulnerable children regardless of a family's income or legal status or the cost of services needed.

    The landmark welfare reform legislation signed by President Clinton in August 1996 significantly alters this safety net. In replacing Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) removed the entitlement for families with incomes below a certain level to receive financial assistance from the federal government. While it made few changes to federal child...

    Child welfare services encompass a broad range of activities, including investigating alleged incidents of abuse and neglect, protecting victimized children, supporting and preserving families, and assisting children who must be temporarily or permanently removed from their parents' homes. Child welfare agencies are an integral part of the public social services safety net. They often act as the provider of last resort since state laws assign them legal responsibility for ensuring the safety of all vulnerable children regardless of a family's income or legal status or the cost of services needed.

    The landmark welfare reform legislation signed by President Clinton in August 1996 significantly alters this safety net. In replacing Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) removed the entitlement for families with incomes below a certain level to receive financial assistance from the federal government. While it made few changes to federal child protection programs specifically, provisions of the legislation have potentially far-reaching effects on the child welfare system. In particular, it may both directly and indirectly affect the financing of child welfare services. This brief explores the implications and potential direct effects of the new welfare regulations on the funds available for child protection programs, states' ability to collect federal foster care and adoption assistance reimbursements, and state methods for financing kinship foster care. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Quint, Janet; Bos, Johannes; Polit, Denise
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 1997

    New Chance, a national research and demonstration program that operated between 1989 and 1992, was developed in a policy context marked by intense concern about teenage childbearing. That concern reflected the public's distress about three developments: the dramatic increase in the rate of out-of-wedlock childbearing over the past three decades, the long-term welfare costs incurred by young, poor women who become mothers, and the negative life prospects faced by their children. Little was known, however, about what kinds of programs and policies could help young mothers on welfare attain economic independence and could foster their children's development as well.

    The New Chance Demonstration was a rare and important opportunity to test the value of comprehensive services in assisting a disadvantaged group of families headed by young mothers who had first given birth as teenagers, who had dropped out of high school, and who were receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The program, which operated in 16 locations (or "sites") in 10 states across...

    New Chance, a national research and demonstration program that operated between 1989 and 1992, was developed in a policy context marked by intense concern about teenage childbearing. That concern reflected the public's distress about three developments: the dramatic increase in the rate of out-of-wedlock childbearing over the past three decades, the long-term welfare costs incurred by young, poor women who become mothers, and the negative life prospects faced by their children. Little was known, however, about what kinds of programs and policies could help young mothers on welfare attain economic independence and could foster their children's development as well.

    The New Chance Demonstration was a rare and important opportunity to test the value of comprehensive services in assisting a disadvantaged group of families headed by young mothers who had first given birth as teenagers, who had dropped out of high school, and who were receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The program, which operated in 16 locations (or "sites") in 10 states across the country, sought to help the young mothers acquire educational and vocational credentials and skills so that they could secure jobs offering opportunities for advancement and could thereby reduce, and eventually eliminate, their use of welfare. It also sought to motivate and assist participants in postponing additional childbearing and to help them become better parents. Finally, New Chance was explicitly "two-generational" in its approach, seeking to enhance the cognitive abilities, health, and socioemotional well-being of enrollees' children. The program was, for the most part, voluntary; that is, young women were generally not required to attend in order to receive public assistance. Instead, most joined it because they wanted to earn their General Educational Development (GED, or high school equivalency) certificates and the program offered free child care to enable them to participate.

    To evaluate the program's effectiveness, young women who applied and were determined to be eligible for New Chance were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the experimental group, whose members could enroll in the program, or the control group, whose members could not join New Chance but could receive other services available in their communities. To ascertain both short- and longer-term program effects, comparable information was collected from each member of both groups through in-home survey interviews conducted approximately 1½ and 3½ years after the individual had been randomly assigned. The measured average differences between the two groups' outcomes over time (such as their differences in rates of GED attainment, employment, or subsequent childbearing) and between the outcomes for their children are the observed results (or impacts) of New Chance. This, the final report on the New Chance program and its impacts, examines the trajectories of 2,079 young mothers who responded to the 3½-year survey.  (author introduction)

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